2019年11月9日下午托福阅读真题+题目+答案：From Wild Wolf to Domestic Dog
The symbiosis the interdependent relationship between two different species of organisms, in which each benefits from the relationship between humans and tamed wolves produced the domesticated dog. This first animal domestication is an excellent example of the domestication process. Humans were in contact with wolves early in the evolution of both species. Early humans and small wolves co-occurred between 500, 000 and 300,000 years ago in sites in northern China. A cave excavated in southern France contains human-built shelters 125,000 years old, with a wolf skull apparently intentionally placed at each entrance. Humans have had a long history of knowing the wolf as a wild animal and ample time to experiment with the species as a tamed animal.
【】 Tamed animals are defined as being dependent on people and willing to stay with or close to them. 【】 Domesticated animals are1 raised in captivity, and humans control their breeding, territorial organization, and food 1supply. 【】 The domesticated dog is generally thought to have derived from tamed wolves.【】 Initially, wolf pups were tamed and brought into close association with humans.
Remains of tamed wolves look like those o1 wild wolves. Thus, the evidence for taming is difficult to determine in most cases. According to one researcher, fossil bone characteristics cannot provide evidence for distinguishing tamed wolves from early domestic dogs, and it is in fact still doubtful how clear the distinctions are between ,wild and tamed wolves. However, it is possible to distinguish wild wolves from full) domesticated dogs.
Domestication is more a process than an vent, but dogs are quite different creatures when compared to wolves; even dogs such as Siberian huskies that superficially resemble wolves. The morphological changes in wolves as they became dogs initially involved foreshortening of the muzzle or nose, crowding of the tooth rows, and a proportional reduction in size of the teeth. One of the earliest examples o foreshortening in wolf skulls was found in conjunction with a Paleolithic mammoth hunters' campsite in the Ukraine dating to about 31,000 years ago.
Over antiquity, humans tamed a diverse1 array of other animals, including hyenas,gazelles, and the foxes tamed by the ancient Egyptians. These and other carnivores such as the cape hunting dog, the coyote, the jackal, and the large cats have been tamed,but never domesticated.
The successful domestication of the dog from the wolf springs from the exceptional fit between humans and wolves with respect to food, behavior, and habitat. Between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, both humans and wolves in small bands hunted many of the same animals. Both deployed vigorous adults to hunt their prey. Both coordinated their efforts to produce more hunting success.Both were able to drive, weaken, and kill prey that was larger than they were by working in relays to chase, and control the fight of the prey. Captures were carried back to young individuals and nursing females. Both species coordinated their hunting efforts (and their social organization) by a combination of vocal and visual communication. Wolves and humans were organized into a hierarchy of dominant and subordinate individuals.
In short the interactions, organization, mode of communication, and society of small human settlement would not have been totally alien to the wolf.
The domestication of tamed wolves did not have to overcome us much of the intrinsic nature of the animal as the domestication of some other animal might have. Several conditions are necessary for an animal to be domesticated. First, the young animal has to be physically tough enough to survive the trauma of removal from its own mother (probably while still feeding from its mother). Further, it must be hardy enough to adapt to a new diet and environment. Second, the species' behavior must be compatible with humans’ social structure. What is needed is a social animal with dominance hierarchies that will accept humans as leaders and that will identify with humans for life. Wolves conform well to these conditions, whereas most other animals do not.
1. The word “excavated” in the passage is closest in meaning to
D. dug up
2. According to paragraph 2，the main difference between tamed and domesticated animals is that tamed animals
A. do not define their own territory
B. do not regulate their oun food supply
C. arc not raised by people
D. are not dependent on people
3. According to paragraph 3, it is difficult to use fossils as evidence for the taming of wolves because the remains of tamed wolves
A. are so different from early dogs that researchers question the evidence
B. have been found in numbers too small to effectively study
C. cannot be distinguished from those of wild wolves
D. are usually missing the teeth and muzzles needed for comparison to early dogs
4. Why docs the author mention "Siberian huskies"?
A. To illustrate the idea that all types of dogs are significantly different from wild wolves
B. To argue that some types of dogs are more similar to wolves than others
C. To give an example of one type of dog that is not yet fully domesticated
D. To suggest that some dogs can live in the wild
5. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about the process of domestication that led from the wolf to the dog?
A. It began with Siberian huskies.
B. It began by using wolves to hunt.
C. It began at least 31,000 years ago.
D. It is still going on.
6. The word "exceptional" in the passage is closest in meaning to
7. According to paragraph 3, in comparison to wolves, domesticated dogs
A. have larger teeth
B. have a smaller skull
C. have a larger nose
D. are almost identical
8. According to paragraph 5, all of the following were true of human groups hunting between 10,000 an years ago EXCEPT:
A. Both groups communicated vocally and visually to improve their hunting success.
B. Both groups hunted many of the same animals.
C. Both groups hunted in small bands and worked together to obtain prey larger than themselves.
D. Both groups included all family members in their hunting activities.
9 Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
While these characteristics are similar to those of domesticated animals, others are different Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.
10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented tn the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on
View Text The animal domestication process is well exemplified by the transition from wild wolf to domesticated dog.
A. Hutmans and wild wolves coexisted early and the domesticated dog probably derived from wolves that early humans had tamed.
B. The process of domesticating dogs from wild wolves took humans over 200,000 years to complete.
C. Differences between tamed wolves and wild wolves were primarily physical ones that did not affect their way of life.
D. Clear physical differences exist between wild wolves and fully domesticated dogs, though not necessarily between tamed wolves and early domesticated dogs.
E. The successful domestication of tamed wolves by humans was achieved thanks to similarities in what the two species ate, how they behaved, and where they lived. F. Domesticating tamed wolves required humans to separate young wolves from their mothers in order to familiarize them with the very different human life style.