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2015年7月12日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Honeybee Society

来源:原创作品 | 2019-10-1720

2015年7月12日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:HoneybeeSociety1.Honeybeecoloniesareessentiallysocietiesoffemales.Inahiveofperhaps20,000bees,onlyafewhundredwillbemalebees,calleddrones.Theyare

2015年7月12日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Honeybee Society

1. Honeybee colonies are essentially societies of females. In a hive of perhaps 20,000 bees, only a few hundred will be male bees, called drones. They are around only in the spring or summerlong enough to rise to treetop level in a comet-like swarm, chasing after one of the queen bees that have assembled from various hives at a mating site. Of the many drones assembled, only 10 to 15 will actually mate with a queen during one of her mating flights. Each drone that is successful dies in the process, however, and a similar fate awaits drones that aren't successful; once mating is done, they will be expelled from their hives or killed.

2. The week of mating flights prepares the queen for a lifetime of prodigious egg laying; she will produce up to 2,000 fertile eggs a day for years. Nearly all of the offspring that hatch from these eggs are female; they are the hive's worker bees; and they are well named, for it is they who will maintain the hive, forage for food, store the food away, care for newly laid eggs, and more. It is they who will do everything for the colony, in other words, except lay eggs and mate with the queen.

3. Over their brief adult lives of perhaps six weeks, every worker bee takes on, in a predictable order, nearly all the worker tasks that the hive has to offer. For the first three days of her life, a worker is primarily a cleaner of the cells that the bee larvae (immature, wormlike bees) are stored in. As the days pass, she becomes primarily a larvae feeder, then a hive construction worker, then an entrance guard and food storer, and finally a forager, going out to secure nectar, pollen, and water for the colony. Within this structure, however, a worker's life is one of surprising flexibility. After becoming a construction worker, for example, she still engages in some cell cleaning; and throughout her life, she spends a good deal of time resting and patrolling the hive.

4. Importantly, there is no chain of command in a colonyno group of workers communicating the message more food needed now or cell cleaning needed over here. How, then, does all this work get organized among tens of thousands of bees Bees are prompted to act either because of environmental conditions (the temperature of the hive, for example) or because of signals or cues they receive from other bees. The signals are explicit acts of communication, as with the famous waggle dance that bees perform to inform their fellow workers of the location of food sites.

5. Quite often, however, bees are reacting to cues they get from other bees that simply imply a given condition. Take, as an example, a cue that researcher Thomas Seeley confirmed that has to do with unloading time at the hive. In a well-fed hive, forager bees gather food only from flower patches that have lots of nectar. When a hive is near starvation, however, the foragers aren't so choosy; then low-yield flower patches will do. So, how does a forager know whether to be choosy or not How is she informed of the nutritional status of the colony, in other words Her informational source is the length of time it takes her to unload her food. Providing the cues are the food-storer bees, which receive the food the foragers bring back and then process it into honey and pack it away in the hive. It takes a returning forager a relatively long time to make contact with a food-storer bee in a well-fed hive, but a relatively short time in a starving hive. Why Because in a well-fed hive, the food storers have plenty to keep them busythere is plenty of food to store away. If, however, a forager can make contact with a food storer within 15 seconds of entering the hive, the forager knows the colony is low on food and will start paying visits to low-yield sites. This is but one example of how life in the colony is self-organizing; each bee's behavior is shaped by the behavior of other bees.

 

托福阅读真题题目:

1..The phrase expelled from in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. forced from

B. carried from

C. left by

D. guided from


2..It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that drones are around only in spring or summer because

A. they are born in these seasons

B. mating flights occur in these seasons

C. they are expelled from the hive in these seasons

D. they are unable to survive in colder seasons


3..According to paragraph 1, all of the following are true about honeybee drones EXCEPT:

A. They are a small percentage of the bees in a hive.

B. They die in the process if they mate with a queen bee.

C. They are accepted back in the hive if they fail to mate.

D. They swarm at mating sites to chase after a queen bee.


4..Which of the following can be inferred from the discussion of bee society in paragraphs 1 and 2

A. Male bees have no function other than to mate with the queen.

B. Male bees have higher status than female bees in the hive.

C. Female bees produce numerous offspring.

D. Female bees play a relatively unimportant role in the hive.


5..According to paragraph 3, the main task for the most mature worker bees is

A. storing nectar and pollen

B. cleaning bee larvae cells

C. guarding the entrance to the hive

D. obtaining food and water for the hive


6..The word prompted in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. able

B. required

C. programmed

D. stimulated


7..The word explicit in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. unusually creative

B. clearly expressed

C. ordinary

D. necessary


8..Why does the author mention the famous waggle dance that bees perform in the passage

A. To give an example of a signal shared between worker bees

B. To indicate how worker bees are able to find good food sites

C. To show how environmental conditions affect bee behavior

D. To illustrate how the presence of food stimulates bee activity


9..The word imply in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. introduce

B. suggest

C. state

D. reveal


10..According to paragraph 5, which of the following describes forager bee activity when a hive has not been receiving sufficient food

A. The foragers spend time looking for high-yield flower patches.

B. The foragers return to the hive only infrequently.

C. The foragers bring nectar from low-yield as well as high-yield flower patches.

D. The foragers travel long distances looking for nectar.


11..According to paragraph 5, how does a returning forager bee know that the hive is well fed

A. The food-storer bees signal the foragers to remain in the hive.

B. The food-storer bees are producing honey, not storing food.

C. The food-storer bees ignore forager bees that are bringing low-quality food.

D. The food-storer bees are busy and not readily available to unload food.


12..In which of the following ways does paragraph 5 relate to paragraph 4

A. Paragraph 5 continues the discussion of the location of food sites begun in paragraph 4.

B. Paragraph 5 elaborates on the topic introduced in paragraph 4 about types of communication between bees.

C. Paragraph 5 discusses the research that made the waggle dance in paragraph 4 famous.

D. Paragraph 5 explains in further detail the foraging activities of worker bees mentioned in paragraph 4.


13.. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Lacking the body parts to collect nectar and pollen, they have no function in the community once the opportunity to mate has passed.

Where would the sentence best fit Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.


14.. Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text .

Answer Choices

A. Although a hive may contain as many as 20,000 bees, only a few of its females become queens and mate with drones.

B. Once a queen has completed mating, she lays thousands of eggs each day, thereby supplying the colony with offspring for many years.

C. Worker bees accomplish all the work necessary to maintain the hive by following an orderly pattern of taking on new tasks as they mature.

D. Mature workers are typically required to play a variety of roles daily to ensure that the needs of the hive are being met.

E. Rather than following orders from leaders, workers determine what needs to be done from environmental cues or from signals from other workers.

F. Bees communicate most efficiently when they provide explicit signals to their fellow workers.



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