2015年5月9日托福阅读真题+题目+答案：Reconstructing Ancient Environments
1. A stage that is imperative in any archaeological process is the reconstruction of the physical environments in which a particular segment of the archaeological record was formed. Climates and the world's geomorphologythe shape and constituents of land surfaceshave changed greatly over the past several million years of human history, and each archaeological analysis begins with an effort to reconstruct the physical world of the culture being analyzed.
2. Ancient climates can often be reconstructed from floral and faunal remains. The study of animal remains, or faunal analysis, is a complex field in which, in most cases, the archaeologist is trying to reconstruct human diet and local environments. Faunal analysts usually count the numbers and kinds of animals represented by the remains they find, and then use statistical methods to estimate the food values, ages, and sexes of the animals being exploited. The prehistoric record of the meat-eating habits of early humans is far from clear about the prevalence of scavenging. One faction of prehistorians argues there is evidence that early humans were primarily scavengers who found the remains of animals killed by lions and other carnivores, and butchered them. Another faction disagrees and proposes that early humans hunted for their own meat. Marks left by humans cutting up animals with stone tools are now being analyzed to help distinguish between cases in which people butchered animals they had killed themselves and those in which they butchered animals they scavenged from kills of other animals.
3. Throughout human history, plants have been our main source of food, and so floral analysesstudies of the remains of plantsare an extremely important part of archaeology, particularly in studies of how domesticated plants and animals and agricultural economies evolved. Carbon is chemically quite stable, so charred plants (plants converted to charcoal or carbon) and seeds preserve well. Carbonized plant remains can be retrieved by flotation: excavated sediments are mixed with water or some other fluid and the charred plant fragments rise to the surface, where they can be skimmed off and identified. The importance of such analyses lies in the fact that these plants indicate much about the climates and vegetation of the periods in which the animals lived. For example, there are debates about when and where various animals were domesticated. If phytoliths (tiny mineral particles formed inside plants) of domesticated grains are found on the teeth of these animals, the probability is high that they were part of an agricultural economy.
4. Human bodies are also valuable sources of information for archaeologists, particularly if the bodies are well preserved. For example, eleven naturally mummified bodies were found in beach sand in northern Chile and date to about 1000 B.C. When they were analyzed, it was found that one of them was a coca leaf chewer (the earliest known), while other bodies showed the changes of the bones of the inner ear that are characteristic of people who spend a lot of time diving in cold water. In addition, they had the kinds of dental problems and missing teeth associated with the sticky starches of an agricultural dietalthough about 40 percent of their diet came from marine resources.
5. A rapidly growing technical specialty within archaeology is geoarchaeology, which combines archaeological and geological analyses. Geology and archaeology form a natural marriage in many obvious ways because both disciplines are concerned with the alteration of natural landscapes. Glaciers, changing rainfall patterns, and many other natural forces cause changes to landscapes, and of course, so do people. Geologists are broadly concerned with ancient physical environments, and archaeologists require knowledge of these environments to interpret their finds.
6. Geoarchaeological analyses involve many different kinds of questions and techniques. In the Egyptian Delta region, for example, many of the earliest communities were built on large sand-and-gravel mounds created by the Nile River as it deposited the sediments it carried. But many of these communities have been buried under many meters of sediments from numerous ancient floods since that time and by other factors as well. Moreover, the streams feeding into the Nile River in the delta have changed course many times, leaving a maze of crisscrossed buried river channels. Finding these buried sand-and-gravel mounds and the archaeological sites on them often requires complex geological analyses involving special digging, satellite image analysis, and many other techniques.
1..The word constituents in the passage is closest in meaning to
2..According to paragraph 2, prehistorians disagree about which of the following
A. Whether humans hunted animals themselves or ate meat from animals killed by other carnivores
B. The number and kinds of animals humans ate
C. Whether lions and other carnivores were hunted by humans
D. Whether or not humans butchered animals to eat
3..Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Humans using stone tools to butcher animals left marks on the bones of the animals they killed and the animals they scavenged.
B. Humans scavenged animals killed by other animals and butchered them using stone tools.
C. Tool marks on butchered animal bones are analyzed to help determine whether humans killed or merely scavenged the animals.
D. Analysis of the stone tools used by humans to butcher scavenged animals is now being carried out.
4..The word excavated in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. dug from the ground
B. concentrated in solid form
5..According to paragraph 3, what is one reason that scientists use flotation
A. To estimate the fluid content of ancient plants and seeds
B. To identify the sediments in which ancient plants grew
C. To learn about the climate of places where ancient plants grew
D. To determine whether the remains of ancient plants and seeds have carbonized
6..According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true about carbonized plant remains
A. Each fragment of carbonized plant remains contains sediments of a wide variety of plants.
B. Carbonized plant remains are usually found near the remains of domesticated animals.
C. Carbonized plant remains can be recovered by mixing sediments with fluid.
D. Carbonized plant remains from an area are used to settle debates about the age of animal remains located in the same area.
7..According to paragraph 3, which of the following do archaeologists consider to be a strong indicator that an agricultural economy existed in a particular site
A. An unusually high number of animal remains near the surface of the site
B. Remains of domesticated plants in the teeth of animals
C. High numbers of mineral particles inside carbonized plants
D. Evidence of little vegetation change for long periods of time
8..According to paragraph 4, all of the following were true of some people in northern Chile around 1000 B.C. EXCEPT:
A. They were divers.
B. They chewed coca leaves.
C. They had dental problems caused by eating food from marine resources.
D. They ate plants grown on land.
9..The word characteristic in the passage is closest in meaning to
10..The word alteration in the passage is closest in meaning to
11..The purpose of paragraph 6 is to
A. answer questions about the equipment and techniques used in the Egyptian Delta area
B. describe the earliest communities built on large, sand-and-gravel mounds
C. explain how streams feeding the Nile River in the delta change course over time
D. provide an example of a situation where complex geoarchaeological analyses and techniques are necessary
12..According to paragraph 6, what is one reason that complex geological analyses are needed for locating many of the earliest Nile River communities
A. Flood waters can carry evidence of human habitation far from its place of origin.
B. The streams associated with early communities have changed course over time.
C. More recent communities have been built on top of ancient communities.
D. The types of sediments carried by Nile floods have changed since ancient times.
13..Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Such a variety of methods are especially important at sites that are no longer visible on the surface.
Where would the sentence best fit Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.
14..Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.
A. Studying plant and animal remains can reveal details of ancient climates, food sources, and agricultural activities.
B. Faunal analysis deals mainly with analyzing the tools ancient humans used for hunting and killing animals.
C. Once identified, carbonized plant remains can help modern agriculturalists determine the most stable varieties of plants to grow.
D. An examination of human remains can tell archaeologists about such things as the individual's diet and habits.
E. To help understand the physical world of ancient communities, archaeologists may work with geologists and employ complex new techniques.
F. Geoarchaeology, a growing field within archaeology, has proved to be more effective in explaining the alterations made to natural landscapes than in explaining how members of ancient communities lived.