2014年12月3日托福阅读真题+题目+答案：Mexican Mural Art
The first major modern art movement in Latin America was Mexican muralism, which featured largescale murals painted on the wall surfaces of public buildings. One of the most persistent strands in Latin American art in the last 80 years has been an engagement with political and social issues, including the struggle for social justice. This in turn has been accompanied by a desire for authentic forms of selfexpression and freedom from cultural dependency. Although these preoccupations have taken many different forms, Mexican muralism was the first, and its influence was the most far-reaching. Muralism flourished in Mexico in the years immediately following the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) as a result of a combination of circumstances: a climate of revolutionary optimism and cultural experimentation that challenged traditional Eurocentrism, a small but strong group of relatively mature artists of energy, ideas, and ability, and a visionary minister of education, Jose Vasconcelos. Vasconcelos believed that Mexico was destined to play a central role on the international stage. He understood that ideas could be more quickly assimilated through images than through any other medium, and he had the courage to allocate the funds, and the walls of public buildings, to the artists to do with as they liked.
The muralists shared a belief in the power of art to transform society for the better, to challenge social, political, economic, and cultural stereotypes, and to enrich the intellectual life of their country. During the 1920s and 1930s, they covered miles of wall with paintings representing aspects of Mexico’s past and present and the future to which all aspired. Although Mexican muralism is representational and often narrative in form, it should be recognized as a modern movement, it was modernizing in intent, in that it challenged the old order—culturally, socially, and politically. By definition, it was a public, accessible form of art—not a commodity that could be bought and sold by the wealthy elite. Its purpose was to educate, inform, enlighten, politicize and thus empower the general public, in particular the working classes.
The muralist movement was not a unified force, however. The painters who were its leaders took different directions and did not always see eye to eye. Diego Rivera (1886-1957) sought to promote a pluralistic vision of Mexican society by drawing on the rich heritage of the pre-Columbian past (before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas in 1492) and contemporary popular culture, and he investigated preColumbian styles and techniques in an effort to create an aesthetic language that was new and Mexican. He was deeply influenced by native pictographic traditions of communication in which pictures represent written words and ideas, and he sought to develop a modern equivalent, a visual language that could be read like a book. The art of Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949) is less optimistic: he saw both the pre-Columbian past and the revolutionary present in a more negative light, the former as barbarous, the latter often tarnished by corruption and cruelty. He offers no comforting narratives and his expressive, aggressive technique serves as a metaphor of Mexico’s harsh, contradictory reality. David Alfaro Siqueiros (1898-1976) was the most politically active of the three and was an internationalist both ideologically and artistically. In his art he deliberately avoided traditional materials and methods, preferring to use modern industrial paints and spray guns. His works look forward to a fully socialist future where the workers will have won the right to the benefits of the modern industrial era, and his often fragmented, complex imagery does not patronize or make concessions to his audience.
The Mexican muralist movement is undoubtedly one of the most important manifestations of twentiethcentury Mexican culture. Its impact elsewhere in the region, as well as in the United States and Europe, has been enormous. The work of Rivera, Orozco, and Siqueiros triggered a homegrown muralist movement in the United States in cities like New York City, Detroit, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. The influence of the Mexicans on the modern Spanish painter Picasso’s first mural and almost his only major explicitly propagandist work of art—his famous Guemica of 1937—is unmistakable even though the artist himself would have derived it. In Latin America, Mexican-influenced muralism has recurred whenever artists have felt the need to make a clear, public statement in a language that has not been borrowed from outside.
29. The word "persistent" in the passage is closest in meaning to
30. According to paragraph 1, Mexican muralism is concerned with
A.the attempt to make art a more important subject in the Latin American educational system
B. the combination of European art traditions with authentic Latin American art forms
C. the creation of a just society and an independent form of cultural expression
D. the use of art to raise funds for the construction of new public buildings
31. The author mentions the “Mexican Revolution” in the passage in order to
A.explain how the Mexican government used muralism to challenge European political beliefs
B. emphasize an important reason that Mexican muralism thrived
C. give an example of one the most popular subjects of muralism
D. emphasize the success of Mexican artists who participated in political conflicts
32. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that the muralists got most of their financial support from
A.opponents of traditional Europe art
B. wealthy art lovers
C. other muralists from around the world
D. the Mexican government
33. According to paragraph 2, in what way can Mexican muralism be regarded as a characteristically modern art movement?
A.It was representational and often narrative in form.
B. It was supported by a small but enlightened artistic elite.
C. It questioned traditional ideas.
D. It emphasized the future rather than dwelling on the past.
34. The word "promote" in the passage is closest in meaning to
35. The word "contradictory" in the passage is closest in meaning to
36. Paragraph 3 makes all of the following points about artist Diego Rivera EXCEPT:
A.He used elements of pre-Columbian art to help make a new, modern art.
B. He tried to develop a visual language that communicated as clearly as native pictographs had.
C. He used art to express his ideas of what Mexican society should be like.
D. He tried but failed to unify the muralist movement.
37. According to paragraph 3, which of the following was true of Orozco’s art?
A.It was concerned with Mexican problems of the past and the present.
B. It presented the pre-Columbian past favorably.
C. Its images were intended to be pleasing to viewers.
D. Its technique was more typical of international artists than Mexican artists.
38. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is NOT true of David Alfaro Siqueiros?
A.He used modern industrial materials rather than traditional materials in his art.
B. He designed images that were intentionally meant to please his audience.
C. He believed in socialism and viewed the future of workers in the modern industrial era favorably.
D. He took an international approach to both politics and art.
39. The word "manifestations" in the passage is closest in meaning to
40. The author mentions Picasso’s mural “Guemica” in order to
A.provide an example of one of the biggest European influences on Mexican muralism
B. indicate that politically motivated murals were as popular in Europe as they were in Mexico
C. explain why the influence of Mexican muralism was especially strong among Spanish artists
D. provide evidence that the Mexican muralists had a significant impact on the international art world
Paragraph 4 ■ The Mexican muralist movement is undoubtedly one of the most important manifestations of twentieth-century Mexican culture. ■ Its impact elsewhere in the region, as well as in the United States and Europe, has been enormous. ■ The work of Rivera, Orozco, and Siqueiros triggered a homegrown muralist movement in the United States in cities like New York City, Detroit, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. ■ The influence of the Mexicans on the modern Spanish painter Picasso’s first mural and almost his only major explicitly propagandist work of art—his famous Guemica of 1937—is unmistakable even though the artist himself would have derived it. In Latin America, Mexican-influenced muralism has recurred whenever artists have felt the need to make a clear, public statement in a language that has not been borrowed from outside.
41. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.
However, its influence was not limited to Mexico itself.
Where would the sentence best fit?
42. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.
Mexican muralism, the first major modern art movement in Latin America, has been highly influential throughout the Americas and internationally. ● ● ●
1.The Mexican Revolution resulted in a new respect for traditional culture, leading the muralists to paint scenes depicting the everyday lives of poor Mexicans.
2.Jose Vasconcelos made Mexico an important international player by promoting the art and ideas of the revolutionary muralists.
3.The leaders of the muralist movement—Rivera, Orozco, and Siqueiros—all believed in the transformative power of art but differed in terms of their artistic methods and political beliefs.
4.The muralists challenged cultural and economic stereotypes and experimented with both preColumbian and industrial themes, styles, and techniques.
5.Mexican muralism was a traditional representational art focused on Mexico’s preColumbian society and culture.
6.In the 1920s and 1930s, following the Mexican Revolution, a talented group of artists painted many large-scale, politically motivated murals on public buildings.
托福真题答案 CCBDC DBDAB ADB 346