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2014年8月16日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Written Records

来源:原创作品 | 2019-09-27268

2014年8月16日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:WrittenRecords上一篇给大家分享了2014年8月16日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:HuntingandtheSettingofInnerEurasia。本篇是一篇Pssaegs3的托福阅读真题,考试

2014年8月16日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Written Records

上一篇给大家分享了2014年8月16日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Hunting and the Setting of Inner Eurasia。本篇是一篇Pssaegs3的托福阅读真题,考试会随机从以前考过的真题中抽取,所以以前的老真题,还是很有价值的!天道智思教育会持续为大家分享。

For those ancient civilizations that used writing—for instance, all the great civilizations in Mesoamerica, China, Egypt, and the Near East—written historical records can answer many social questions. A prime goal of the archaeologist studying these societies is therefore to find appropriate texts. Many of the early excavations of the great sites of the Near East had the recovery of clay writing tablets as the main goal. Major finds of this kind are still being made—for example, at the ancient city of Ebla (Tell Mardikh) in Syria, where an archive of 5,000 clay tablets written in an early dialect of Akkadian (Babylonian) was discovered in the 1970s.

In each early literate society, writing had its own function and purpose. For instance, the clay tablets of Mycenaean Greece, dating from around 1200 B.C., were all, without exception, primarily records of commercial transactions (goods coming in or going out) at the Mycenaean palaces. This discovery gives us an impression of many aspects of the Mycenaean economy and a glimpse into craft organization (through the names for the different kinds of craftspeople), as well as introducing the names of the offices of state. But here, as in other cases, accidents of preservation may be important. It could be that the Mycenaeans wrote on clay only for their commercial records and used other perishable materials for literary or historical texts now lost to us. It is certainly true that for the Classical Greek and Roman civilizations, it is mainly official decrees inscribed on marble that have survived. Fragile rolls of papyrus—the predecessor of modern paper—with literary texts on them, have usually remained intact only when retained in the dry air of Egypt, or when buried beneath the volcanic ash covering Pompeii.

Coins also provide a valuable source of written records: they can reveal information about the location where they are found, which can provide evidence about trade practices there, and their inscriptions can be informative about the issuing authority, whether they were city-states (as in ancient Greece) or sole rulers (as in Imperial Rome or in the kingdoms of medieval Europe).

In recent years, one of the most significant advances in Mesoamerican archaeology has come from deciphering many of the inscribed symbols (glyphs) on the stone stelae (pillars or columns) at the largest centers. It had been widely assumed that the inscriptions were exclusively of a calendrical nature or that they dealt with purely religious matters, notably the deeds of the gods. But the inscriptions can now in many cases be interpreted as relating to real historical events, mainly the deeds of the Maya kings. We can now also begin to deduce the likely territories belonging to individual Maya centers. Maya history has thus taken on a new dimension.

Written records undoubtedly contribute greatly to our knowledge of the society in question. But one should not accept them uncritically at face value. Nor should one forget the bias introduced by the accidents of preservation and the particular uses of literacy in a society. The great risk with historical records is that they can impose their own perspective so that they begin not only to supply the answers to our questions but subtly to determine the nature of those questions and even our concepts and terminology. A good example is the question of kingship in Anglo-Saxon England. Most anthropologists and historians tend to think of a king as the leader of a state society. Therefore, when the earliest records for Anglo-Saxon England, found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which took final shape in about A.D. 1155, refer to kings around A.D. 500, it is easy for the historian to think of kings and states at that period. But the archaeology strongly suggests that a full state society did not emerge until the time of King Offa of Mercia in around A.D. 780, or perhaps King Alfred of Wessex in A.D. 871. It is fairly clear that the earlier so-called kings were generally less significant figures than some of the rulers in either Africa or Polynesia in recent times, whom anthropologists would term ―chiefs.‖


托福阅读真题题目

29. The word "appropriate" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. ancient

B. suitable

C. new

D. complete


30. According to paragraph 1, why did many early excavations of sites of the great civilizations of the Near East have the recovery of clay writing tablets as the main goal?

A.rchaeologists wanted to determine the writing systems used by the ancient societies that once inhabited those sites.

B. Archaeologists wanted to show that early literate civilizations used clay tablets for their historical records.

C. Archaeologists hoped that the clay tablets would answer many of their questions about the ancient societies that once inhabited those sites.

D. Archaeologists hoped to find evidence that languages other than early Akkadian had been used by the ancient societies that once inhabited those sites.


31. According to paragraph 2, the writing on Mycenaean clay tablets helped to reveal all of the following about Mycenaean society EXCEPT:

A. the flow of goods entering and leaving palaces

B. the names for various types of craftspeople

C. the names of government offices

D. the kinds of materials used to build Mycenaean palaces


32. The phrase "a glimpse into" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.new evidence of

B. surprising information about

C. a brief view of

D. a complete picture of


33. The word "perishable" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.likely to decay

B. difficult to repair

C. valuable

D. hard to find


34. In paragraph 2, why does the author discuss writing from the Classical Greek and Roman civilizations?

A.To help explain why early civilizations wrote mainly on stone and clay tablets

B. To explain how the role of physical material in the preservation of texts can affect our understanding of ancient societies

C. To compare the function of writing in Classical Greek and Roman civilizations

D. To show that some texts on papyrus survived as long as texts inscribed on marble


35. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A.The locations where coins are found can provide information about local trade practices, and the writing on the coins can indicate what kind of government issued them.

B. Coins issued in ancient Greece and Rome and in medieval Europe are important sources of information about the role of writing at those locations.

C. Kings and other rulers often used coins to record information about trade with other governments and about their personal lives.

D. Coins became important in conducting trade transactions, and their inscriptions often indicate the locations where they were issued.


36. The word "notably" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.particularly

B. probably

C. usually

D. understandably


37. According to paragraph 4, one result of understanding the symbols on stone stelae in Mesoamerica was that archaeologists could start to determine

A.what types of calendars had been developed in Mesoamerica

B. what the Mayans believed about the actions of the gods

C. when texts on stone stelae were used for the first time

D. what territories likely belonged to individual Mayan centers


38. In paragraph 5, why does the author discuss The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle?

A.To explain why there are only a few written records from Anglo-Saxon England

B. To explain the uses of literacy in Anglo-Saxon England

C To demonstrate how archaeologists and anthropologists differ in their understanding of kingship

D. To illustrate the risk associated with written records


39. According to paragraph 5, all of the following are true about written records EXCEPT

A.They help us understand a lot about the society that produced them.

B. They can influence the kinds of questions we ask about the society that produced them.

C. They provide archaeologists with reliable evidence about the uses of literacy in most ancient societies.

D. They can lead to inaccurate interpretations about the organization of ancient societies.


40. Paragraph 5 suggests which of the following about written records from ancient societies?

A.They are of far more interest to historians of ancient societies than to the archaeologists studying those societies.

B. They should be interpreted in light of other archaeological evidence about the society in question.

C. They provide the only reliable sources of evidence about the society that produced them.

D. They have been interpreted differently by archaeologists and anthropologists.


Paragraph 4 ■In recent years, one of the most significant advances in Mesoamerican archaeology has come from deciphering many of the inscribed symbols (glyphs) on the stone stelae (pillars or columns) at the largest centers. ■ It had been widely assumed that the inscriptions were exclusively of a calendrical nature or that they dealt with purely religious matters, notably the deeds of the gods. ■ But the inscriptions can now in many cases be interpreted as relating to real historical events, mainly the deeds of the Maya kings. ■ We can now also begin to deduce the likely territories belonging to individual Maya centers. Maya history has thus taken on a new dimension.

41. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

Being able to accurately interpret an ancient language has in many cases transformed our knowledge about the society that used it.

Where would the sentence best fit?


42. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.

Written records of ancient civilizations preserved in several forms have added to our knowledge of early literate societies.

Answer Choices

1.Clay tablets from Mycenaean Greece provide insights into its economy and state structures, and interpreting Mayan symbols on stone stelae has led to a new understanding of Mayan history.

2.Accidents of preservation of ancient texts can lead to a misunderstanding of the functions and purposes of writing in early literate societies.

3.The earliest written record of Anglo-Saxon England, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, describes the early kings of England and provides valuable insights into its emergence as a full state society.

4.Literary texts written on marble by the Classical Greek and Roman civilizations have survived, while Egyptian literary texts that were written on papyrus are now very rare.

5.As a result of reading ancient historical texts, historians have come to understand that many early European kings were as powerful as the chiefs of Africa and Polynesia in recent times.

6.Ancient historical and literary texts present their societies from particular points of view that can lead researcher to develop mistaken assumptions about these societies


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