2014年5月11日托福阅读真题+题目+答案：The Multiplier Effect
The causes behind the rapid development of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean during the late third and second millennia B.C.E. have intrigued scholars for years. Until recently, most explanations attributed Aegean development to outside influence. Civilization had emerged in Mesopotamia by 3000 B.C.E, and, some archeologists argued, Mesopotamian trade introduced civilized ideas and technological innovations into nearby, less advanced areas. Others hypothesized that civilization was brought to the Aegean by invasion from some adjacent region, of which Anatolia in modern Turkey seemed the most plausible.
In a work published in 1972, Professor Colin Renfrew approached the problem from a different viewpoint. He argued that the scanty available evidence for invasion or immigration from Anatolia into Greece in the early Bronze Age (about 3300-2200 B.C.E.) showed that, at most, such incursion was limited, and that it could not be regarded as responsible for the transformation of society there. Trade, though clearly documented, was also an inadequate explanation in itself. To understand the major changes in social organization and complexity that took place, it was necessary, said Renfrew, to determine the impact that new variables emerging in the early Bronze Age may have had on every interrelated aspect of the local social system. The two new major developments he considered were changes in the subsistence economy and the introduction of bronze metallurgy.
The economy of Neolithic Greece was based on growing grains and raising sheep. Early in the third millennium B.C.E., cultivation of grape vines and olive trees also became important in southern Greece and the Aegean Islands. Both crops were eminently suitable for trade and storage in the form of olive oil and wine. They were grown on land that was not suitable for grain farming. Their cultivation required work at a different time of year from that needed by grain crops, and much of this work, such as harvesting, was relatively light. As a result, agricultural yields were substantially increased without disrupting established agricultural practice. That increase in turn allowed, or stimulated, population growth. For the first time there was enough demand for specialized crafts and services to justify the existence of full-time craftspeople, who could be supported from the extra agricultural output.
Some copper artifacts were made during the fourth millennium B.C.E, but there were not many of them and they had little economic or social significance. When, in the third millennium, copper began to be mixed with tin to produce the relatively hard alloy bronze, demand for metal goods grew. Bronze could be used to make a range of useful new tools and weapons and a variety of impressive ornaments. The demand for metalwork stimulated further specialization in crafts such as toolmaking and jewelry making. The new tools promoted the development of other crafts, like carpentry and shipbuilding. Competition for prestigious or useful craft products and for control of their producers helped to heighten both social differences within communities and conflicts between them, resulting in the emergence of local chieftains, who were also in many instances warriors. These chieftains regulated agricultural and craft production, operating a distribution system through which the farmers could obtain tools or ornaments they needed or wanted. The organizational demands of controlled distribution made it necessary to develop methods of measurement and recording, which led to the development of writing.
Renfrew argued that any single innovation would have had a limited or negligible effect on social organization because the inherently conservative nature of societies acts to minimize change. However, the interaction of several simultaneous developments created a multiplier effect. In the Aegean, increased agricultural productivity provided the means to support craft specialization, while bronze metallurgy provided the technology for producing highly valued new products. These factors set in motion a series of changes in other subsystems of society. Those changes in turn resulted in what, in a term borrowed from electronics, are called positive feedback loops—alterations in the workings of a social system that serve to reinforce themselves. Thus Aegean society was transformed from one consisting of basically self-sufficient and egalitarian farming villages to one of prosperous, hierarchical chiefdoms, with palace-dwelling rulers, actively competing with one another both at home and in international trade.
1. Paragraph 1 implies which of the following about traditional scholarship concerning the development of Aegean civilizations?
A. It focused on the influence of Aegean trade on more advanced civilization rather than the invasion of the Aegean by a technologically advanced culture.
B. The development of Minoan civilization was thought to require a different explanation from that for the development of Mycenaean civilization.
C. It maintained that the rapid development of Aegean civilization could be explained only through external influence.
D. There was general agreement that Anatolia and Mesopotamia were both responsible for the development of civilization in the Aegean. Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow [→]
2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A.Renfrew said that local variables affected the complex social organization of the early Bronze Age.
B. Renfrew said that the major changes in social organization could be understood only by examining the effects of the new developments that took place in the early Bronze Age.
C. The early Bronze Age, Renfrew said, was a time in which there were major changes to many interrelated aspects of local social systems.
D. To understand the social organization and complexity of the early Bronze Age, it was necessary, said Renfrew, first to determine what new variables had emerged.
3. The word ”justify” in the passage is closet in meaning to
A.include within the social system
B. provide a rational basis for
4. According to paragraph 3, growing grape vines and olive trees increased agricultural yields because
A.grapes and olives were mostly used for trade rather than for competing with established crops in local markets
B. grape vines and olive trees could be cultivated on land that was also used for raising sheep
C.growing grapes and olives did not require the services of specialized workers
D. grape vines and olive trees did not compete with other crops for land or labor Paragraph 3 is marked with an arrow [→]
5. According to paragraph 3, the increased importance of grape and olive cultivation led to
which of the following changes in Greece?
A.An increase in the number of inhabitants
B. An increase in the amount of grain traded
C. An increase in the percentage of farmers in the population
D. The development of new methods of storing foods Paragraph 3 is marked with an arrow [→]
6. The word ”promoted” in the passage is closet in meaning to
B. benefited from
D. speeded up
7. According to paragraph 4, why did the invention of bronze lead to increased conflict?
A.It resulted in more effective weapons for warriors.
B. It led to competition for the control of skilled craftspeople and their products.
C. It left the craftspeople who had been involved in making copper products without and occupation.
D. It led to competition for available supplies of tin to be used in the production of bronze. Paragraph 4 is marked with an arrow [→]
8. All of the following are discussed in paragraph 4 as changes in Greek society after bronze was introduced EXCEPT:
A.Social differentiation within communities increased.
B. Metalcraft workers became more specialized.
C. Methods were invented for documenting the distribution of goods.
D. Craft workers gained greater independence from local chieftains. Paragraph 4 is marked with an arrow [→]
9. The phrase “several simultaneous developments” in the passage is closet in meaning to
A. independent developments
B. developments that reinforced each other
C.Developments that occurred at the same time
D. developments that followed one another in a sequence
10. The word ”hierarchical” in the passage is closet in meaning to
A. having several levels of authority
B. dependent on military support
11. What role does the idea of a “multiplier effect” serve in Renfrew’s explanation of the development of civilization in the Aegean?
A.It allows him to argue that the combined effect of individual developments can lead to a major transformation of a social organization.
B. It allows him to explain the idea of a positive feedback loop.
C. It allows him to explain the inherently conservative nature of societies.
D.It allows him to explain how the changes in agriculture, bronze metallurgy, and craft specialization came about.
12. According to paragraph 5, the transformation of Aegean society involved all the following EXCEPT
A.interdependence of the society’s various social and economic structures
B. economic success
C.competition between chiefdoms for economic dominance
D. social and political equality Paragraph 5 is marked with an arrow [→]
Paragraph 2 In a work published in 1972, Professor Colin Renfrew approached the problem from a different viewpoint. ■He argued that the scanty available evidence for invasion or immigration from Anatolia into Greece in the early Bronze Age (about 3300-2200 B.C.E.) showed that, at most, such incursion was limited, and that it could not be regarded as responsible for the transformation of society there. ■Trade, though clearly documented, was also an inadequate explanation in itself. ■To understand the major changes in social organization and complexity that took place, it was necessary, said Renfrew, to determine the impact that new variables emerging in the early Bronze Age may have had on every interrelated aspect of the local social system. ■The two new major developments he considered were changes in the subsistence economy and the introduction of bronze metallurgy.
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Instead, Renfrew emphasized the complex internal dynamics of change. Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.
Colin Renfrew’s explanation of the rise of Aegean civilization rejected traditional views that the cause was one or another external influence on the developing society. ● ● ● Answer Choices
1.The emergence of Aegean civilization was the result of internal factors interacting with each other in a way that multiplied each other’s effects.
2. An increase in population created a shortage of agricultural land that increased social tensions and forced many farmers to become warriors for local chieftains.
3.More effective bronze weapons increased the power of local chieftains, who imposed a system in which they collected farm and craft products in exchange for protecting their subjects.
4. Once people began producing bronze, it surpassed wine and olive oil as the most important good traded in the Aegean.
5.Agricultural surpluses from the production of olive oil and wine and the introduction of bronze technology together supported population growth, the development of crafts, and economic expansion.
6.As the economy diversified and grew, a higher level of social organization was required, a need that encouraged the emergence of