2014年4月27日托福阅读真题+题目+答案：Urban Development in the United States in the Nineteenth Century
In discussing the growth of cities in the United States in the nineteenth century, one cannot really use the term “urban planning,” as it suggests modern concerns for spatial and service organization which, in most instances, did not exist before the planning revolution called the City Beautiful Movement that began in the 1890s. While there certainly were urban areas that were “planned” in the comprehensive contemporary sense of the word before that date, most notably Washington, D.C., these were the exception. Most “planned” in the nineteenth century was limited to areas much smaller than a city and was closely associated with developers trying to make a profit from a piece of land. Even when these small-scale plans were well designed, the developers made only those improvements that were absolutely necessary to attract the wealthy segment of the market. Indeed, it was the absence of true urban planning that allowed other factors to play such an important role in shaping the nineteenth-century American city.
Three forces particularly affected the configuration of urban and suburban areas in the nineteenth century: economics, transportation technology, and demographics. Added to these was the characteristic American preference both for independent living, usually associated with having an individual, free-standing home for one’s family, and for rural living. Economics affected urbanization in two ways. First, economic considerations influenced location decisions for business and industry, which often preempted choice sites. Second, industrial growth generated higher incomes for large segments of the population, which in turn provided more money for larger homes and commuter transportation. Related to economics (since costs to individuals always played a role) were improvements in transportation, from the first horse-drawn buses of the 1820s to electrified street railways at the end of the century. Each transport innovation extended the distance that a person could reasonably travel as a commuter or shopper, while constant system improvements and increased ridership lessened costs.
Demographic patterns also affected urbanization in two ways: first, urban populations grew steadily throughout the century due to immigration from rural areas, principally by those seeking factory work, and emigration from abroad. Therefore cities expanded as new housing had to be provided. Secondly, at the same time that new residents were surging into cities, many urbanites, particularly those of the middle classes, began to leave. While a preference for rural living explained part of this exodus, it was also due to the perception that various urban problems were becoming worse.
Many nineteenth-century urban problems were those that continue to plague cities today—crime, pollution, noise—but others were the direct result of lack of planning and regulation, such as threat of fire, poor sanitation, and shoddy building construction. Fire was a significant problem in urban areas of North America from the time of the first European settlement. Construction with combustible materials coupled with close placement of buildings and the use of open flames in heating, cooking, and lighting meant that the potential for raging fires was ever present. Lack of sanitation, and the ensuring public health problems it created, was a more constant, if less dramatic, urban issue. It was not until the 1860s that any serious, concerted effort was made to develop proper systems for water delivery and sewage removal. In spite of remarkable strides made in the 1870s and 1880s by the newly established profession of sanitary engineering, the common nineteenth-century pattern of individual unprofessionally planned and installed cesspools (underground tanks for holding household sewage) continued. This led to water contamination and the spread of disease by rodents and insects.
Problems of fire and poor sanitation were inextricably linked with the last major urban problem of the nineteenth century—lack of coordination in the physical expansion of cities and their infrastructure systems (systems for providing services such as water, gas, electricity, and sewage). Typically, development was both unplanned and unrestricted, with landowners making all choices of lot size, services, and street arrangement based only on their individual needs in the marketplace. Distortions of streets and abrupt changes in the distance of houses from the street in urban areas, which so clearly delineate where one development ended and another began, were just the most obvious problems that this lack of coordination created.
Paragraph 1 In discussing the growth of cities in the United States in the nineteenth century, one cannot really use the term “urban planning,” as it suggests modern concerns for spatial and service organization which, in most instances, did not exist before the planning revolution called the City Beautiful Movement that began in the 1890s. While there certainly were urban areas that were “planned” in the comprehensive contemporary sense of the word before that date, most notably Washington, D.C., these were the exception. Most “planned” in the nineteenth century was limited to areas much smaller than a city and was closely associated with developers trying to make a profit from a piece of land. Even when these small-scale plans were well designed, the developers made only those improvements that were absolutely necessary to attract the wealthy segment of the market. Indeed, it was the absence of true urban planning that allowed other factors to play such an important role in shaping the nineteenth-century American city.
1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Understanding the growth of cities in nineteenth-century America requires recognizing how the City Beautiful Movement of the 1890s changed “urban planning.”
B. For the most part, there was no “urban planning,” as that term is understood today, before the beginning of the City Beautiful Movement in the 1890s.
C. Concerns for spatial and service organization had little impact on the growth of cities before the 1890s when the City Beautiful Movement began.
D.The growth of cities in nineteenth-century America resulted in the creation of the City Beautiful Movement in the 1890s and the rise of the term “urban planning.”
2. According to paragraph 1, Washington, D.C. was
A.a typical nineteenth-century American city
B. a city that was planned in separate sections by land developers
C.the very first city in America to be described as “planned”
D one of the few cases of true urban planning in America before the 1890s Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow
3. Select the TWO answer choices that, according to the paragraph 1, best describe most urban plans in the nineteenth century. To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.
A. They were created to profit land developers.
B. They typically affected only part of a city rather than the whole city.
C. Their success sometimes directly led to other necessary improvements in cities.
D.They were carefully reviewed by city governments. Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow。
4. In paragraph 2, the author mentions the characteristic American preference both for independent living and for rural living to
A. identify one of the factors that affected the configuration of urban and suburban areas in America in the nineteenth century
B. explain which of the three forces mentioned—economics, transportation technology, and demographics—was the most important in shaping American cities and suburbs
C. explain how decisions were made in American nineteenth-century cities and suburbs about locations for businesses and factories
D. provide evidence showing that industrial growth was able to generate higher incomes for much of the population in nineteenth-century cities and suburbs in America Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow
5. The word “steadily” in the passage is closet in meaning to
6. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about changes in the demographics of cities during the nineteenth century?
A.The reason most people left the city was to take jobs in the country.
B. The middle class population increased.
C. The population became more ethnically diverse.
D. The working class population tended to live in the oldest housing. Paragraph 3 is marked with an arrow 。
7. The word “plague” in the passage is closet in meaning to
A.be discussed in
B. be found in
D. cause trouble for
8. According to paragraph 4, lack of adequate systems for removing sewage led to
A. the appearance of new types of rodents and insects
B. the development of new, more effective cesspools
C. disruptions of water-delivery systems
D. contamination of water supplies
9. The word “plague” in the passage is closet in meaning to
10. According to paragraph 5, one of the major consequences of the lack of restrictions and comprehensive urban planning was that
A. infrastructure systems were coordinated by local groups rather than by city governments
B. cities became smaller over time because people began leaving
C. landowners developed urban lots however they wished
D. some housing developments that were begun were never completed Paragraph 5 is marked with an arrow