2014年3月23日托福阅读真题+题目+答案：Early Modern Industrialization
Industrialoutput increased smartly across nearly all of Europe between 1450 and 1575. Although trade with the Americas had something to do with this, the main determinants of this industrial advance lay within Europe itself.
Population grew from 61 million in 1500 to 78 million a century later, and the proportion of Europeans living in cities of 10,000 or more—and thus dependent on the market for what they consumed—expanded from less than 6 percent to nearly 8 percent during the same period. More important than sheer numbers, many Europeans’ incomes rose. This was especially true among more fully employed urban groups, farmers who benefited from higher prices and the intensifying commercialization and specialization in agriculture (which also led them to shed much non-agricultural production in favor of purchased goods), and landlords and other property owners who collected mounting rents. Government activities to build and strengthen the state were a stimulus to numerous industries, notably shipbuilding, textiles, and metallurgy. To cite just one example, France hastened to develop its own iron industry when the Hapsburgs—the family that governed much of Europe, and whom France fought repeatedly in the sixteenth century—came to dominate the manufacture of weapons in Germany and the cities of Liege and Milan, which boasted Europe’s most advanced technology.
The supply of goods was also significantly modified. Migration had long been critical for the diffusion of knowledge that spawned new trades or revived others. Now thousands of workers, and sizeable amounts of capital, moved from one region to another. At the same time, new commodities appeared on the market, often broadening and deepening demand. Most were inexpensive items destined for individual consumers. Knitted stockings, ribbon and lace, buttons, starch, soap, vinegar brewed from beer, knives and tools, pots and ovens, and many more goods, formerly made only for local sale, now entered into channels of national or international trade. The best-known and most widely adopted new industry was printing with movable type, which spread swiftly throughout Europe after Johannes Gutenberg perfected his innovation in 1453. Despite isolated cases of resistance—the scribes’ guild (an association of book copiers) delayed printing’s introduction into Paris for twenty years, for example—more than 380 working presses had sprung up by 1480, and 1,000 (in nearly 250 towns) by 1500. Between 1453 and 1500, all the presses of Europe together turned out some 40,000 editions (known as incunabula), but from 1501 to 1600, that same quantity was produced in Lyon and Paris alone.
In metals and mining, technical improvements were available that saved substantially on raw materials and fuel, causing prices to drop. The construction of ever-larger furnaces capable of higher temperatures culminated in the blast furnace, which used cheaper ores and economized on scarce and expensive wood, cutting costs per ton by 20 percent while boosting output substantially. A new technique for separating silver from copper allowed formerly worthless ores to be exploited. Better drainage channels, pumps, and other devices made it possible to tunnel more deeply into the earth as surface deposits began to be exhausted. In most established industries, however, technological change played little role, as in the past, new customers were sought by developing novel products based on existing technologies, such as a new type of woolen cloth with the texture of silk.
Sharply declining transaction costs (the direct and indirect expenses associated with transporting, distributing, and marketing goods and services) were more influential. On a general level, the decrease was due to greater security thanks to the lessening of wartime disruptions and to the economies of scale achieved when selling to large, concentrated urban populations. More specifically, it can be traced to transport innovations such as the carrack, a large ship that reduced rates for oceanborne freight by up to 25 percent, and big four-wheeled Hesse carts for overland routes. The spread of efficient organizational forms further contributed to declining costs, as did falling interest rates, which dropped from 20 percent or 25 percent in the mid-fifteenth century to 10 percent 100 years later.
1. The word “determinants” in the passage is closet in meaning to
B. long-term benefits
2. The word “hastened” in the passage is closet in meaning to
3. According to paragraph 2, the fact that more people lived in European cities meant that
A. more people had to purchase food and other basic necessities rather than producing these things themselves
B.ndustrial output increased because more people were available for employment in manufacturing
C. fewer people were available for agricultural work and thus farmers were forced to pay higher wages
D. more people competed for full-time urban employment, driving wages down Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow
4. Which of the following is discussed in paragraph 2 as contributing to the growth in the market for manufactured goods that occurred in Europe after 1500?
A. Lower costs for food and housing
B.Advancements in manufacturing technology
C. Higher incomes
D. Increased property ownership by farmers Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow
6. The word “perfected” in the passage is closet in meaning to
7. According to paragraph 3, which of the following was true about the new technology for printing with movable type?
A.It met with opposition wherever attempts were made to introduce it.
B. It spread with increasing rapidity throughout Europe after 1453.
C. It rapidly turned printing into the most important industry in Paris.
D.It was controlled in most places by the local scribes’ guild. Paragraph 3 is marked with an arrow
8. Which of the following is NOT identified in paragraph 4 as an improvement made possible by technological developments?
A. The mining of ores that had previously been too deep to reach
B. The use of previously worthless ores
C. A reduction in cost of expensive wood
D. The construction of furnaces that cost less to operate
9. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Although most established industries continued operating with existing technologies, some novel products required the development of new technologies.
B.In the past, technological change had been unimportant in most established industries because the products that customers wanted could be produced using existing technologies.
C. In most established industries, technological change played a role only when it made possible the production of novel products that attracted new customers.
D. Most established industries attracted new customers by developing new products based on existing technologies rather than by applying new technologies.
10. According to paragraph 5, what was one reason for the increase in security?
A.Reductions in transaction costs
B. Improvements to overland routes
D. More sophisticated technologies for distributing goods Paragraph 5 is marked with an arrow
11. In paragraph 5, the author mentions the transport innovations of the carrack and Hesse carts in order to
A.provide examples of wartime inventions that were adapted for use in industry
B. explain how knowledge of more efficient organizational forms was spread
C.provide reasons for the decline in transaction costs
D. identify innovations that led to falling interest rates Paragraph 5 is marked with an arrow
Paragraph 3 The supply of goods was also significantly modified. ■Migration had long been critical for the diffusion of knowledge that spawned new trades or revived others. Now thousands of workers, and sizeable amounts of capital, moved from one region to another. ■At the same time, new commodities appeared on the market, often broadening and deepening demand. ■Most were inexpensive items destined for individual consumers. ■Knitted stockings, ribbon and lace, buttons, starch, soap, vinegar brewed from beer, knives and tools, pots and ovens, and many more goods, formerly made only for local sale, now entered into channels of national or international trade. The best-known and most widely adopted new industry was printing with movable type, which spread swiftly throughout Europe after Johannes Gutenberg perfected his innovation in 1453. Despite isolated cases of resistance—the scribes’ guild (an association of book copiers) delayed printing’s introduction into Paris for twenty years, for example—more than 380 working presses had sprung up by 1480, and 1,000 (in nearly 250 towns) by 1500. Between 1453 and 1500, all the presses of Europe together turned out some 40,000 editions (known as incunabula), but from 1501 to 1600, that same quantity was produced in Lyon and Paris alone.
12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. For example, during this period, international investment in Switzerland rapidly expanded after the country was flooded by skilled workers fleeing religious persecution in Italy and France. Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.
The sharp rise in industrial output across most of Europe between 1450 and 1575 was mainly due to changes within Europe. ● ● ●
1.Industrial development was stimulated by rising incomes and growing populations—especially in market-dependent urban centers—and by government support for certain industries.
2.Numerous technological innovations that could be applied to the manufacture of consumer goods grew out of the weapons industry that had developed in Germany, Liege, and Milan.
3.New industries that manufactured goods for individual consumers were able to keep prices low in large part because of new technologies designed to accommodate economies of scale.
4.With increased mobility of labor and capital, more and more goods—especially inexpensive consumer goods—were produced for wide distribution rather than being limited to local markets
5.Industrial development was limited in some areas due to the high costs of transportation, labor, and rents, and because of the localized nature of industrial knowledge.
6.Lower prices for manufactured goods were the result of lower interest rates, of improvements in transportation, security, and organization, and of innovations in metal-making, mining, and printing.