智思教育

2011年1月8日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Forest Succession

来源:原创作品 | 2019-09-18251

2011年1月8日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:ForestSuccessionSuccessionisacontinuouschangeinthespeciescomposition,structure,andfunctionofaforestthroughtimefollowingdisturbance.Eachstageofsu...

2011年1月8日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Forest Succession 

Succession is a continuous change in the species composition, structure, and function of a forest through time following disturbance. Each stage of succession is referred to as a successional sere. The final stage of succession, which is generally self-replacing, is referred to as the climax sere. There are two major types of succession: primary and secondary. Primary succession is the establishment of vegetation on bare rocks or radically disturbed soil. Secondary succession is the reestablishment of vegetation following a disturbance that killed or removed the vegetation but did not greatly affect the soil. Volcanic eruptions, retreating glaciers, and bare sand dunes are examples of sites subject to primary succession, while clear-cutting of forests, wild fires, and hurricanes are examples of sites subject to secondary succession. Hundreds to thousands of years are required for primary succession to reach the climax sere, compared to decades to hundreds of years for it to occur in secondary succession. A longer time is needed to reach the climax sere for primary than secondary succession because soil development must first take place in primary succession. The rate of succession is dependent upon the extent of the disturbance and the availability of appropriate seeds for recolonization.  


What morphological (structural) and ecophysiological characteristics determine the species composition and abundance in succession? In general, nitrogen fixing plants(plants that can make use of atmospheric nitrogen) are important early succession species in primary succession because nitrogen is not derived from the weathering of rock and little or no organic matter is present in the soil.Weedy plants are common early successional species because of their rapid growth and high reproductive rates, while stress-tolerant species are common late successional species.  


The structure of a forest changes as well in secondary succession. Depending on the type and the severity of the disturbance, a moderate to large amount of dead organic matter from the previous forest remains on the site immediately from the disturbance. The leaf area of the forest is at a minimum and slowly increases as new vegetation occupies the site. Following a disturbance, such as a fire, the new canopy (the uppermost spreading and branching layer of a forest) is largely composed of similar-aged, or even-aged, trees. Light, nutrient, and water availability are highest during the early successional sere because the vegetation has not completely occupied the site. Canopy closure, or maximum leaf area, can occur within several years after disturbance in some tropical forests, but may take three to fifty years in evergreen forests.  


In the second stage of forest development there is tree mortality caused by competition for light, nutrients and water. The intense intraspecies (within a species) and interspecies (between species) competition for light, nutrients and water induces the mortality of plants that are shaded or have one or more life-history characteristics that are not well adapted to the changing environment. The third stage of forest development is characterized by openings in the overstory canopy, caused by tree mortality, and the renewed growth of understory in response to increased light reaching the forest floor. Consequently, the forest canopy becomes more complex, or multilayered. The final stage of forest development, the climax or old growth stage, is characterized by a species composition that in theory can continue to replace itself unless a catastrophic disturbance occurs. Unique characteristics of old growth forests include large accumulation of standing and fallen dead trees--referred to as coarse woody debris. Also, the annual input of forest litter is dominated by coarse woody debris compared to the earlier stages of forest development, when leaf and fine root debris were the dominant sources of nutrients and organic matter input into the soil.  


Some ecosystems may never reach the latter stages of succession if natural disturbances (fire, flooding, hurricanes, etc) are frequent. A pyric climax refers to an ecosystem that never reaches the potential climax vegetation defined by climate because of frequent fires. The ecotone, a boundary, between grassland and forest is a pyric climax, and only with fire suppression have woodlands and forests began to advance into these regions.

  

托福阅读真题题目:

1. According to paragraph 1 each of the following can create a site that is likely to be subject to secondary succession EXCEPT

A. large scale forest clearances 

B. volcanic eruptions 

C. hurricanes 

D. major forest fires


2. Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about disturbances

A. They occur in a series of stages. 

B. They can result from natural causes or human activities.

C. They may contribute to increased volcanic eruptions.

D. They have no impact on the speed with which succession occurs.


3. According to paragraph 1 the main factor that explains why it takes so long for a primary succession to reach climax is the time it takes for

 A. glaciers to retreat

 B. dead vegetation to decay

 C. soil to form

 D. seeds to mature after recolonization


4. Paragraph 2 supports the idea that nitrogen-fixing plant species are heavily represented in the early stages of a primary succession because they

 A. do not require soil that contains nitrogen.

 B. generally grow more rapidly than other plants.

 C. tend to be more stress tolerant than other plants. 

 D. tend to be less weedy than other plants.


5. The word "severity" in the passage is closest in meaning to  

A. suddenness

B. seriousness 

C. location 

D. timing


6. According to paragraph 3 the earliest stage of a secondary succession is characterized by each of the following EXCEPT

A. an incomplete covering of vegetation 

B. a canopy made up of trees that vary widely in age

C. relatively ample nutrients available in the soil 

D. relatively plentiful light reaching growing plants


7. The word "induces" in the passage is closest in meaning to 

A. explains 

B. increases 

C. disappears with 

D. brings about


8. The word "consequently" in the passage is closest in meaning to 

A. in other words 

B. nevertheless

C. as a result

D. basically


9. The word "catastrophic" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. extremely harmful

B. very complex 

C. different

D. long-lasting


10. According to paragraph 4 which of the following is a characteristic of old growth forests

A. improved ability to withstand major disturbances 

B. increasing amounts of woody debris 

C. a decline in the mortality rate of tree species

D.increasing reliance on leaf and fine root deatritus as a source of nutrients


11. According to paragraph 4 one difference between the second and the third stage in forest development is that in the third stage  

A. there is more intraspecific competition than interspecific competition.

B. the growth of understory and suppressed substory trees slows down. 

C. sudden changes in the environment are less frequent.

D. the canopy becomes more complex.


12. Why does the author discuss pyric climax in the passage? 

A. To help explain the idea that a forest may not necessarily reach the old growth stage. 

B. To suggest that fire is a natural disturbance least likely to prevent an ecosystem from reaching its potential climax stage.  

C. To acknowledge that the pattern of succession following a disturbance is a very different in ecosystems such as grasslands than it is in forests. 

D. To help explain how the boundary areas of an ecosystem affect the way its structure changes during succession.  

Paragraph 1: Succession is a continuous change in the species composition, structure, and function of a forest through time following disturbance. Each stage of succession is referred to as a successional sere. The final stage of succession, which is generally self-replacing, is referred to as the climax sere. There are two major types of succession: primary and secondary. Primary succession is the establishment of vegetation on bare rocks or radically disturbed soil. Secondary succession is the reestablishment of vegetation following a disturbance that killed or removed the vegetation but did not greatly affect the soil. Volcanic eruptions, retreating glaciers, and bare sand dunes are examples of sites subject to primary succession, while clear-cutting of forests, wild fires, and hurricanes are examples of sites subject to secondary succession. ■ Hundreds to thousands of years are required for primary succession to reach the climax sere, compared to decades to hundreds of years for it to occur in secondary succession. ■ A longer time is needed to reach the climax sere for primary than secondary succession because soil development must first take place in primary succession. ■ The rate of succession is dependent upon the extent of the disturbance and the availability of appropriate seeds for recolonization. ■


13. Look at the four squares [■ ] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

Tree species that have small, light seeds that are dispersed by wind or transported by animals recolonize a disturbed area more quickly than species with large seeds.  

Where would the sentence best fit?


14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Succession is a continuous change in the species composition, structure, and function of a forest through time following disturbances.   ● ● ● Answer Choices

 1. Primary succession occurs at sites where soil must be developed and thus takes a far longer to complete than secondary succession, which occurs where relatively undisturbed soil already exists. 

 2. The second stage of forest development is much shorter in boreal forests than it is in tropical forests. 

 3. Old growth forest differs from earlier succession stages in that most soil nutrients come from leaves and fine root debris rather than from dead trees and other coarse woody debris.  4. Early in secondary succession resources are relatively abundant and vegetation increases until canopy closure, after which competition for resources brings about increased plant mortality. 

 5. With a rising tree mortality, openings in the canopy develop, leading to layered plant growth beneath the overstory canopy, and eventually a climax stage is reached. 

 6. The effective suppression of grassland wild fires has provided opportunities for the ecotone to proceed into a forest.


查看本篇托福阅读真题答案,请扫码查看!

更多托福阅读真题,请点击查看:


2013年1月12日托福阅读+题目+答案:England's Economy in the Sixteenth Century

2011年1月8日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:Forest Succession

2011年1月8日托福阅读真题+题目+答案:The Rise of Moscow

2014年10月18日托福阅读真题P3—The Collapse of the Mays



版权及免责声明
1、如转载本网原创文章,请表明出处;
2、本网转载媒体稿件旨在传播更多有益信息,并不代表同意该观点,本网不承担稿件侵权行为的连带责任;
3、如本网转载稿涉及版权等问题,请作者见稿后在两周内速来电与智思教育联系,电话:021-64325600。

内容推荐

学员成绩提升率100%,满意度99%
全国校区
params['xiaoqu'])['address']?>
咨询热线:021-64325600
课程咨询
北美标化提分站
咨询热线:021-64325600