2011年1月8日托福阅读真题+题目+答案：The Rise of Moscow
The rise of Moscow during medieval times was a fundamental development in Russian history. Moscow began with very little and for a long time could not be compared to such flourishing principalities as Novgorod or Galicia. Even in its own area, the northeast, it was junior to old centers like Rostov and Suzdal. In accounting for Moscow's rise, historians have emphasized several factors or rather groups of factors.
First, attention may be given to the doctrine of geographic causation. It stresses the decisive importance of the location on Moscow for the later expansion of the Muscovite state (the medieval state centered in Moscow) and includes several lines of argument. Moscow lay as a crossing of three roads. The most important was the way from the historically crucial city of Kiev and the declining south to the growing northeast. In fact Moscow has been described as the first stopping and setting point in the northeast. But it also profited from moments in other directions, including the reverse. Thus it seems immigrants came to Moscow after the Mongol devastation of the lands further to the northeast. Moscow was also situated on a bend of the Moscow River that flows from the northwest to the southeast into the Oka, the largest western tributary of the Volga River. To speak more broadly of water communications which span and unite European Russia, Moscow has the rare fortune of being located near the headwaters of four major rivers: the Oka, the Volga, the Don, and the Dnieper. This offered marvelous opportunities for expansion across the flowing plain, especially as there were no mountains or other natural obstacles to hem in the young principality. In another sense too, Moscow benefited from a central position. It stood in the midst of lands inhabited by the Russian people which, so the argument runs, provided a proper setting for a natural growth in all directions. In fact some specialists have tried to estimate precisely how close to the geographic center of the Russian people Moscow was situated, noting also such circumstances as proximity to the land dividing the two main dialects of the Great Russian language. Central location within Russia, to make an additional point, cushioned Moscow from outside invaders. Thus, for example, it was the city of Novgorod, not Moscow, that continuously had to meet enemies from the northwest, while in the southeast Riazan absorbed the first blows from the direction. All in all, the considerable significance of the location on Moscow cannot be denied although this geographic factor has generally been assigned less relative weight by recent scholars.
The economic argument is linked in part to the geographic. The Moscow River served as an important trade artery, and as the Muscovite principality expanded around its waterways, it profited by and in turn helped to promote increasing economic intercourse. One school of thought has treated the expansion of Moscow largely in terms of the growth of a common market. Another economic approach emphasizes the success of the Muscovite princes in developing agriculture in their domains and supporting colonization. These princes clearly outdistance their rivals in obtaining peasants to settle on their lands. As a further advantage, they managed to maintain in their realm a relative peace and security highly beneficial to economic life.
The last view introduces another key factor in explaining the Muscovite rise: the role of the rulers of Moscow. Moscow has generally been considered fortunate in its princes. Sheer luck constituted an important part of the picture. For several generations, the princes of Moscow had the advantage of male succession without interruption or conflict. In particular, for a long time the sons of the princes of Moscow were lucky not to have uncles competing for the Muscovite seat. When the classic power struggle between royal uncles and nephews finally erupted under Basil II(reigned 1425-1462), direct succession from father to son possessed sufficient standing and support in the principality of Moscow to overcome the challenge. The principality has also been considered fortunate because its early rulers, descending from the youngest son of Alexander Nevskii (1220?-1263) and thus representing a junior princely branch, found it expedient to devote themselves to their small holdings instead of neglecting them for more ambitious undertakings elsewhere.
1. The word "flourishing" in the passage is closest in meaning to
2.The word "doctrine" in the passage is closest in meaning to
3. Why does the author include the information that Moscow has been described as the first stopping and setting point in the northeast?
A. To explain why certain historically important areas near Moscow have fallen into a decline.
B. To show why Moscow attracted populations of immigrants from lines located further to the northeast.
C. To emphasize the importance of the location on Moscow in accounting for its growth.
D. To challenge the idea that immigrants to Moscow came from only one direction.
4. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about residents of Moscow during medieval times?
A. Most retained strong cultural and economic ties to Kiev and the South.
B. Some were Mongols who came from areas northeast of Moscow.
C. Some had fled to Moscow to escape violent attacks from the northeast.
D. Most eventually moved on to other locations in the northeast.
5. According to paragraph 2, all of the following were true of Moscow EXCEPT
A.It was near several important waterways
B. It was surrounded by open areas that were easily crossed.
C. It was located at a place where several travel routes came together.
D. It was protected from attack by its position in the bend of a river.
6. The word "cushioned" in the passage is closest in meaning to
7. According to paragraph 3 specialists have tried to determine which of the following
A. Why Moscow seems to grow naturally in all directions
B. How close Moscow was to the geographic population center of the Russian people
C. Where the dividing line between the two major dialects of Great Russian was located
D. Which of the two major dialects of Great Russian was more commonly used
8. According to paragraph 3 which of the following best represents the view of recent scholars about the role of geography in Moscow's rise
A.Geography cannot account for many aspects of Moscow's rise.
B. The role of geography in Moscow's rise is still not fully understood.
C. Geography was important in Moscow's rise but not as important as early scholars thought it was.
D. Although geography played a role in Moscow's rise this role was fairly minor.
9. The word "intercourse" in the passage is closest in meaning to
10. Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 4 as a factor in the economic success of the Muscovite principality?
A. improvements made to waterways used in trade
B. efforts of Muscovite princes to introduce new agricultural methods
C. conditions of comparative peace and security on Muscovite lands
D. groups of peasants setting land in other areas of Russia
11. According to paragraph 5 why has Moscow generally been considered fortunate in its princes
A. For a long period of time royal succession proceeded peacefully and without interruption from one generation to the next.
B. Through most of Moscow's history royal nephews were unable to take power away from each other.
C. In general Moscow's princes were almost always willing to share their power with their uncles.
D. Over the course of time the Muscovite rules of succession from father to son was relaxed considerably.
12. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
The principality has also been considered fortunate because its early rulers, descending from the youngest son of Alexander Nevskii (1220?-1263) and thus representing a junior princely branch, found it expedient to devote themselves to their small holdings instead of neglecting them for more ambitious undertakings elsewhere.
A. It is fortunate that Moscow's early rulers were descended from an unambitious princely branch with small holdings
B. Moscow benefited from its early rulers' desire to concentrate their energy on the care of their own small properties.
C.Moscow was fortunate in that it traced its rulers back to the youngest son of Alexander Nevskii.
D. Because most of Moscow's early rulers were junior princes their properties were fortunately relatively small and easy to care for.
Paragraph 4: The economic argument is linked in part to the geographic. ■ The Moscow river served as an important trade artery, and as the Muscovite principality expanded around its waterways, it profited by and in turn helped to promote increasing economic intercourse.■ One school of thought has treated the expansion of Moscow largely in terms of the growth of a common market. ■ Another economic approach emphasizes the success of the Muscovite princes in developing agriculture in their domains and supporting colonization. ■ These princes clearly outdistance their rivals in obtaining peasants to settle on their lands. As a further advantage, they managed to maintain in their realm a relative peace and security highly beneficial to economic life.
13. Look at the four squares [■ ] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.
Scholars have debated the relative importance of various economic factors in the principality's overall success.
Where would the sentence best fit?
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Historians point to several factors to account for Moscow's rise during medieval times. ● ● ● Answer Choices
1. Moscow was located near the geographic center of Russian-speaking peoples and was situated advantageously with respect to enemies, travel, and expansion.
2. Moscow expanded despite its early difficulty in its establishing command of its local waterways.
3. Moscow was politically stable because its early rulers generally succeeded each other steadily and without violence.
4. Moscow enjoyed numerous economic advantages due to expanding trade, successful farming and the relative absence of war.
5. Because some of Moscow's princes were descended from ancestors with relatively small holdings they were slow to improve life for the principality's residents.
6. Because its princes were deeply involved in economic activities such as agriculture and trade Moscow did not experience the power struggle that troubled other principalities.