2016年11月12日托福独立写作范文：Some believe that teachers (for students from age 14-18) should focus on lecturing and asking students to take notes during lectures. Others believe that teachers should get students involved in discussion and encourage them to exchange ideas in class. Which way of teaching do you think is more effective for students' learning?
b.激发学习兴趣：在讨论和做项目的过程中，会发现自己目前掌握的知识和需要的知识之间有information gap，因此有更大的兴趣去narrow down
There are basically two types of classes in university, classes, i.e., where teachers lecture and where the students do some of the talking. Both teaching and learning approaches are valuable and have their own relative merits.
Classes that are dominated by teachers' lectures may benefits students in several ways. First of all, lectures can communicate the intrinsic interest of the subject matter. The speaker can convey personal enthusiasm in a way that no book or other media can. Enthusiasm stimulates interest, and it is an undeniable fact that interested, stimulated people tend to learn more. Moreover, lectures in university settings can provide students with role models of scholars in action. The professor's way of approaching knowledge can be demonstrated for students to emulate. Furthermore, lectures can organize material in a special way. They may provide a faster, simpler method of presenting information to an audience with its own special needs. Lectures are particularly useful for students who read poorly or who are unable to organize print material.
On the other hand, lecture approaches also have some relevant weaknesses. For example, the lecture often puts students in a passive rather than an active role. As is often the case, passivity can hinder learning. At the same time, most lectures assume that all students are learning at the same pace and at the same level of understanding, which is hardly ever true. Especially, Lectures place the burden of organizing and synthesizing content solely on the lecturer. They are not well suited to higher levels of learning such as application, analysis, and synthesis. Lectures require an effective speaker who can vary tone, pitch, and pace of delivery. Lecturers must be verbally fluent, a skill that is not stressed nor learned in many Ph.D. programs and is usually distributed unevenly among people. Lectures are therefore sometimes not well suited to complex, detailed, or abstract material.
In summary, Lecturing is probably the oldest teaching method and remains the most common form of instruction, despite the fact that some research has shown that lecturing is ineffective, especially if not combined with some alternative style of teaching. In fact, Lecturing is very appropriate for some goals and very inappropriate for others. And at the same time, the counterpart — the approach that allows students to participate discussions is equally non-universal. Therefore, I can hardly simply say that I prefer either approach. I think the choice should depend on circumstances including various factors such as the subject that is to learn, the depth that needs to explore, the quality that the lecturer or the discussing group have.
Educators and researchers have never stopped the examination of the importance and relevance of collaborative and interactive learning that are encouraged by middle schools. When compared with boring lecturing, I, personally, believe that it is far more beneficial to students when they share their ideas and exchange opinions with each other for the following reasons.
First off, exchanging ideas with fellow classmates help students develop critical thinking, presentation skills and other kinds of soft skillsets. When discussing issues with peers, students tend to take a position on a certain issue. In this learning process, students will collect their thoughts and synthesize the concepts learned in textbook or in the lecture to support his or her points. Also, to respond to others' comments, students have to reflect on the rationale of their own arguments and come up with persuasive reasoning. It is obvious that such activities helps students to learning more meaningfully and extensively. Furthermore, students unconsciously learn how to express themselves affirmatively and make their points clear in front of a large audience. It takes right amount of eye contacts, body language and facial expression to convey one's idea in a convincing way and such presentation skills can be valuable asset for one's future career.
Additionally, actively discussing issues with peers can help students to cope with different opinions. When discussing issues with peers, not only do student contribute to the class, but also they get a chance to be exposed to different ideas and perspectives. This is a very conducive experience since we are not living in a vacuum and learning how to appreciate, value and even embrace opinions that are unfamiliar to us can be very important. Furthermore, such experience can be useful in one's future career when one also has to confront with different business solutions provided by their coworkers. A recent study conducted by Harvard Business Review shows that the one who experienced group discussions and exchanging of views in school demonstrates a higher potential to resolve possible conflicts with future coworkers and enjoys far more promising future.
In conclusion, discussion and idea exchanges should be encouraged since such activities can help students to develop critical thinking, presentation skills and other kinds of soft skillsets, also they will get students prepared on how deal with different opinions now and in future career.