2015年12月12日托福独立写作范文：Some companies provide important products or service, but also damage environment. Some people believe that government should require more penalty, higher tax and larger fine of these companies, while others believe there are better ways. Which do you prefer? (15.12.12)
In recent years, the concept of sustainable development, balancing the economic prosperity and environmental protection, has been widely acknowledged by the majority of individuals and governments. Followed by such an ideology, some environmentalists and government officials propose that higher tax or more penalty should be imposed on companies which damage environment even though they provide important products or service. It sounds reasonable in some aspects. However, when we examine the issue closely, we may find that such a proposal is ineffective and many other ways are more practical and effective.
To begin with, the policy of increasing penalty or tax is with limited effects in terms of reducing pollutions resulted from industrial sector. It is tempting to think that once the authoritative institutions introduce stricter policies, like the staggering penalty or tax regarding polluted water or gas caused by factories, the majority of entrepreneurs would be deterred and stop releasing unprocessed water or gas. However, advocates of such a plan neglect the fact that there are various alternatives for companies to shift the cost. For instance, they can increase the price of products or service. As a result, it is consumers who end up paying for the policy in the form of increased products’ price, which would definitely deviate from the primary purpose of the move. In this case, manipulating the behavior of private sector simply by increasing penalty or tax does not work.
Furthermore, advancing the technology or developing new energy might be advisable. Currently, some critics concerning industrial pollution are, to some extent, with the self-righteous attitude, which regard the businessmen as greedy who only care about profits regardless of any social responsibility. In this case, only the increased penalty can tug their heartstring and reconsider their business strategy. However, apart from the reason I mentioned before that business sector has other alternatives to combat the policy, other factors also need to be taken into account, like the energy efficiency, the availability of environmental facilities, and the form of energy. Take the power company as an example. In order to ensure the enough electricity to factories and households, the companies are forced to burn coal or fossil fuels, which inevitably emits carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other harmful gases into the air. However, can we simply blame the power company? I don’t think it is fair. As a matter of fact, the power company would like to invest in the exploration of cleaner energy, like solar energy and wind energy so as to conserve the environment. However, exploiting alternative energy not only requires a great sum of money to conduct research but also needs the cooperation from several departments in the government, which is certainly beyond the capacity of power companies. Thus, it is exactly where the government should step in and fill in the gap. For instance, the government could provide funds to scholars to develop cleaner energy and allocate resources to build the wind turbines to maximum the natural resources. Similarly, the energy-efficient and environmental-friendly facilities are relative expensive and out of reach to many factories. If the government could allocate resources to encourage such kinds of research and lower its price, many companies would like to purchase and apply it. As a result, the environmental problem would be alleviated.
In addition, launching a reliable system which labels the eco-friendly products might also encourage the companies to install environmental-friendly facilities and mitigate the pollution. Nowadays, people, especially the younger generation, are gradually aware of the significance of protecting environment. The campaign “Fridays for future” initiated by 16-year-old girl Greta Thunberg in Sweden is a perfect proof. Not only from the cognition, but we also like to pay actual efforts, like purchasing eco-labeled products. Nonetheless, the environmental management system has not been adopted by many countries, or the inconsistent requirements from different countries also confuse the consumers and inhibit the purchase, which makes companies lack of the motivation to reduce pollution. In this case, if the system is introduced by the majority of countries with a global accepted standard, the influence of eco-labeled products would reach into global market, driving the companies to provide products with low carbon footprint.
Considering the reasons mentioned above, I firmly believe that there are many other ways to tackle industrial waste rather than increasing the penalty or tax.
Nowadays, air pollution has become a seriousproblem that concerns us with its damage to not onlythe environment, but also our physical well-being. Although some people propose to raise the cost offuel as a solution to this issue, I personally believethat it is not the best way to solve the problem of airpollution.
Indeed, increasing the enforcement of penalty can reduce the damage to the environment tosome extent. Considering the higher costs in handing in fines to the law enforcementdepartments, these companies might figure out ways to reduce the amount of pollution. As aresult, the reduced pollution to a decrease in the toxic chemicals and wasted gases in theenvironment. However, this solution does not solve the problem completely. Even the pricegoes up, most companies would still make a fortune. Such necessity is not able to bereplaced, and pollution would continue to be a problem. For example, many factories in southBeijing has emitted numerous pollutants to the nearby river. Although the local governmenthas posed more taxation on them, what they may choose to do is to produce more productsto balance the loss in taxes, making the pollution even worse.
Exploiting new energy sources, on the other hand, is a better alternative to reduce pollutionbecause it is a stable solution that will solve the problem eternally. Cars that are powered bysolar energy, for example, cause no harm to our environment, since it uses a long-lastingand powerful battery to absorb and store the energy from the sunlight and then use thisenergy to power the cars. According to research conducted by scientists in Japan and China, thesolar energy cars do not produce any greenhouse gases such as the carbon dioxide and thesulful dioxide, or toxic materials that polluted the air. Based on this, cars driven by solarenergy would reduce the emission of waste gas to the environment.
Moreover, shutting down the factories that produced air pollution is another more effectiveway to reduce the toxics in the environment. In fact, most of the air pollution comes fromthe disqualified factories, not from the wasted gases from the cars. After the city government ofBeijing shut down hundreds factories around the city in 2008, the air quality of Beijingincreased by 40%. The blue sky above the skyscrapers appeared for more than a month, ssight that has never been seen for the past ten years. In such case, regulating the factoriesthat produced air pollution effectively improved the quality air.
All in all, I believe taking harsh penalty for companies is not the best way to reduce the airpollution, since there are better alternatives such as shutting down the factories and applyingnew energy sources to people’s lives.
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