Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.
Ok. At the end of our last class, I started to talk a little bit about a _______ movement in the United States painting in the late nineteen forties and the nineteen fifties. And I said that the artists involved shared a spirit of revolt against tradition and belief in _______ freedom of expression. This significant art movement is known as abstract expressionism.Now, abstract expressionism is kind of hard to define, but it it’s basically an attempt by the artist to _______ meaning or feeling in an abstract way. So the artists didn’t worry about whether they were painting familiar subject matter, like the kinds of things you’d see in the world around you. They paint… well abstract things on a huge canvas which itself was a break from traditional technique.And it was common among artists to _______ the paint to the canvas very rapidly and with great force.
So let’s look at the work of the most famous American abstract expressionist Jackson Pollock. There was nothing in Jackson Pollock’s training as an artist that suggested he would come to be seen as some sort of artistic revolutionary.In the nineteen thirties, he studied drawing and painting at the art students league of popular art school in New York Cities. What he did later in the nineteen forties was a startling innovation.Jackson Pollock used a technique, the so called pour and drip technique, for which he is best known. He didn’t use the traditional _______. He laid his wall sized canvas flat on the floor so he could move around it and work it from all sides. Then he poured and dripped his paint onto the canvas without touching it with a brush, just poured and dripped.
Now, the physical movements involved in polished painting technique have led people to call it action painting, which almost suggests that the process of creating the painting physically was at least as important as the end product itself. In fact, people used to watch him work in his studio,dripping and pouring paint and other materials onto his canvases. This could make you think of Pollock works being kind of like wild or chaotic or _______.But the truth is that Pollock was in complete control of his materials and his paintings, Pollock, pour and drip works were quite revolutionary. And at first they shocked the art world. Pollock used massive canvases. They see more like portable murals than anything else.
A good example of his technique is the painting “Autumn Rhythm”, which Pollock painted in nineteen fifty. Autumn Rhythm, at first glance, looks like basically just a whole lot of _______ lines,rather bizarre, just like a bunch of pointless drips and _______. But if you look closely, you will see why it’s so admired. Beneath all the apparent chaos, there’s really a very definite structure of lines,rhythms, and _______ that makes the whole piece work._______ randomness would not be nearly as visually appealing as this painting is. You need some structure, even if it’s not readily apparent. I’ve read some articles by other scholars who in their discussion of Pollock, uh… some of them like to point out that he painted his canvas is why looking down at them since they were on the ground, as I said, but when we go to a museum, they’re up on a wall. They think this is significant, because it makes our perspective different.
But I mean, well, think of photography. We’ve all seen photos of the sky, the ground, meaning that the photographer was shooting from different _______. Does that mean that we should put a photo of the sky on the ceiling? Of course not. It wouldn’t matter if you’re looking at it on a wall or in a photo album on your _______. And…and I think it’s the same with Pollock. It doesn’t matter from which angle we view his paintings. Its ok that he painted on the floor and we look at it on the wall.
But in spite of his work being shocking and even misunderstood at first, Pollock’s work became so influential in the development of abstract expressionism that the artistic community started to_______ its attention from Paris, which had been the center of the art world, to New York, where Pollock lived and worked. So Pollock’s breakthrough work helped move the focus of _______ art,and that’s one of the measures of his greatness really.
dominant, spontaneous, convey, apply, easel, random, squiggling, swirls, sensations, Sheer, angles,lap, shift, contemporary
1. Why does the professor discuss Jackson Pollock?
A. To point out a common misconception about Abstract Expressionism
B. To help students understand the nature of Abstract Expressionism
C. To compare Pollock’s technique to that of other Abstract Expressionist painters
D. To defend Pollock and the abstract Expressionists from criticism
2. What point does the professor make about Jackson Pollock’s training as an artist?
A. It motivated him to rebel against art he claimed was boring
B. It contrasted with the type of art he later created
C. It taught him how to paint using unconventional methods
D. It was very different from the type of training most artists receive
3. What were two features of Jackson Pollock’s painting technique? Click on 2 answers
A. He used walls as a painting surface
B. He painted the canvas while it was on the floor
C. He applied paint by pouring or dripping it
D. He allowed visitors at his studio to help with the painting
4. What is the professor’s attitude toward the term “action painting”?
A. He thinks it correctly describes Pollack’s painting technique
B. He considers it less appropriate for Pollock than for other abstract expressionists
C. He believes that it represents the sense of movement displayed in Pollock’s paintings
D. He is pleased that contemporary critics rarely use the term
5. What feature of Autumn Rhythm does the professor imply is representative of Pollock’s works?
A. It symbolizes the passage of time
B. It reveals a lack of control over emotions
C. It combines structure and the appearance of chaos
D. It combines tradition and innovation
6. Why does the professor discuss photography?
A. To emphasize how different it is from painting
B. To make a point about its increasing popularity in New York’s art world
C. To show the extent of Pollock’s influence
D. To support his argument about the way people look at Pollock’s paintings、
1、B 2、B 3、BC 4、A 5、C 6、D
Listen to part of a lecture in a zoology class.
Professor: Ok. We’ve been talking about birds, modern birds, and their environments.But it might be interesting to say something about ancient birds, especially the one called archaeopteryx. Difficult word I know, but all it means is ancient wing.
Uh… the first archaeopteryx was discovered in 1861, fossilized in a piece of stone from a _______in Germany. From a paleontology’s point of view, this was a real stroke of luck, um, not only were the _______ bones of this ancient bird extremely well preserved, and that’s pretty rare for a bird,which is why we don’t find very many of them in the fossil record, but the fine details of this fossil were really quite extraordinary. You could even detect impressions of the feathers on it. Amazing,huh?Yes, mike
Male student: Why was it that details like that showed up in this particular fossil?
Professor: Well, I mentioned before that the archaeopteryx fossil was found in a quarry, you know,where people cut stone, and in this case, _______ fine-grained limestone. And the point is the particles that this limestone was made of were so fine that the limestone preserved much of the fossil in _______ detail. And as I said revealed impressions of details even as small as the lines in a feather.But that’s pretty rare.There are not many fossils of ancient birds in general being so fragile, much less archaeopteryx fossils. So we don’t know for sure, as much as we’d like to, but there are lots of opinions. It’s…. It’s like, say the Mona Lisa. You guys have seen copies of that painting, right? The Mona Lisa. Well, one of the great things about it is that each person who sees that painting understands it a little differently according to their own biases. You might say that the archaeopteryx is a scientific Mona Lisa.
Male student: How so?
Professor: Oh, well, ornithologist who study modern birds tend to see the archaeopteryx as an early ancestor of the birds we see today. But paleontology, the one who study fossils and forms of ancient life, point out its similarity to some dinosaur species. I mean it is very different from modern birds in some important ways. I mean there’s no _______. The tail is long and bony, the way of reptiles is,rather than short and stubby like modern birds. And it has claws at the end of what are called its wing fingers. They’re generally _______ in modern birds.
Female student: So, ornithologist think it’s a bird and paleontology say it isn’t.
Professor: Oh, did I say that? Oh, no, no, I’m sorry. That’s not what the debates about. The archaeopteryx had feathers and creatures with feathers are classified as birds.
Female student: So, then what is the debate about?
Professor: Ok, well, like I said, um, even with the lack of a beak and with its tail and claws, it’s still classified as a bird. The debate is, well, evolutionary speaking, where does archaeopteryx fit. For the paleontology to studies other dinosaurs of that period, it’s…. well in a lot of ways, nothing all that unusual.
Male student: Except for the feathers?
Professor: Except for the feathers…. Exactly! Paleontology see the archaeopteryx in terms of its wider evolutionary relationships. Um… they see it as a kind of link almost between dinosaurs and modern birds, or at least closely related to one.And for the ornithologist, the archaeopteryx is a bird with exceptional features and the earliest bird on record. A basic belief of ornithologist is the birds evolved, um, or that their evolution is closely related to their developing the ability to fly.But some of those features I mentioned earlier, of the lack of a bird like tail the claws, these don’t do much to support the notion that the archaeopteryx could fly. But then again, it did have other modern-birds-like features. So it probably could rise up off the ground, but only very awkwardly. And it probably wasn’t too graceful once it got into the air. Actually, though, as to whether the archaeopteryx could fly, we don’t really have _______ evidence one way or the other.
Male student: So, do you agree with the paleontology’s professor? or the ornithologist?
Professor: Well, the most recent research is based on some fossils being found in China. It’s hardly complete, but I find its conclusions really _______. Um, apparently, the feathers of the archaeopteryx may have evolved not for flight, but either for display, um…. males using colorful feathers to attract a mate, or for insulation. And feathers are very useful for conserving body heat in cold temperatures.
quarry, fragile, exceptionally, exquisite, beak, absent, conclusive, compelling
1. What does the professor mainly discuss?
A. Conditions that led to the extinction of the archaeopteryx
B. The adaptation of the archaeopteryx to its environment
C. Research on the archaeopteryx as an example of the typical dinosaur
D. The importance of the archaeopteryx in the study of the evolution of birds
2. According to the professor, why was the first archaeopteryx fossil of unusually high quality?
A. The fossil was not exposed to harsh weather conditions that could have damaged it
B. Archaeopteryx bones preserve more successfully than the bones of other birds
C. The stone in which the fossil was found was composed of very fine particles
D. The archaeopteryx was fossilized more recently than other ancient birds found in fossils
3. Why does the professor mention the Mona Lisa?
A. To argue that examining fossils is a process that requires great attention to detail
B. To point out that the archaeopteryx fossils can be interpreted in different ways
C. To demonstrate that no one fully understands the process of bird fossilization
D. To persuade the class that the archaeopteryx was a particularly beautiful bird
4. What point does the professor make about the tail of the archaeopteryx?
A. It was the only part of the archaeopteryx not preserved in fossils
B. It is the reason that the archaeopteryx is classified as a bird
C. It was very different from the tails of modern birds
D. It is the reason ornithologists believe the archaeopteryx could fly
5. What is the professor’s attitude toward the recent research on fossils discovered in China?
A. She is inclined to believe the results of the research
B. She has not yet formed any opinion about the study because it is incomplete
C. She is upset that the study’s conclusions contradicted her own opinions
D. She doubts that the study will help answer questions about the archaeopteryx
6. Why does the professor say this:
A. To indicate that she disagrees with other researchers
B. To acknowledge that her explanation may have been unclear
C. To warn the student about a common misunderstanding
D. To suggest that the student should listen more carefully
1、D 2、C 3、B 4、C 5、A 6、B
Listen to part of a lecture in an archaeology class.
Professor: We've been talking about techniques for locating and dating archaeological_______. Now,in some places, archaeological investigations are difficult, and we have to use some special techniques. In the country of Iceland, for example.Now, um, Iceland is a _______ island located in the North-Atlantic Ocean, and about ten percent of it is covered by glaciers.
Student: So is it too cold to work there? Or maybe everything is under the ice?
Professor: Uh, no, that's not the problem. It's that Iceland has virtually no trees to hold down soil.And so there's been a lot erosion, especially erosion of soil from the highlands to lower coastal areas.And this erosion has buried much of Iceland under deep_______ of soil. And remember what I said about few trees? Well, with so little wood available, the earliest _______ in Iceland were built mainly from compressed peat.
Student: Did you say peat?
Professor: Yes, peat. That's a light kind of airy soil that comes from _______ and wetlands and contains a high proportion of decayed _______ matter. Anyway, the peat can be compressed and dried and made into big, thick blocks. And that's what the walls of the early Icelandic houses were made of mostly.Now, since the walls of these old houses were made basically of a kind of soil, they're really hard to locate underground, cause the material these buried structures are made of doesn't differ very much from the soil that surrounds them.
Student: So how do you find these peat walls buried in all that other soil?
Professor: Well, one way is to borrow a modern technique used by geophysics.
Student: Ah, sorry, if you said this already, but what are they looking for in Iceland anyway?
Professor: Ah, yes, good question. Iceland, and stories about it. Um, Icelandic sagas have _______ people for centuries. The sagas seem to be historical _______ of actual north explorers and settlers.But since we're always lacked hard evidence to support the truth of the stories, they seem to be more like legends. There's always been a _______, though, almost like a calling for some of us to verify the truth of these stories. Historians, astronomers, navigators, they've all tried to find proof that people settled where the stories indicate. And we archaeologists have too, by trying to locate dwellings, evidence of animal _______ or farming iron smelting. Any signs of early settlement?
Student: Cool. Are you talking about like the time of the Vikings?
Professor: Yes, that's exactly it. One of these Icelandic sagas tells of some Viking explorers who were probably the first Europeans to cross the Atlantic and live in North America,
Student: North America? But I thought you were talking about Iceland.
Professor: I am. See the story tells of a Viking family from Iceland calledThorfinnson, who settled in north America for a few years, but then moved back to Iceland, which is not that far away. So there is a great interest in investigating Viking era sites in Iceland, especially in the place where the saga says this family finally settled.But back to my point, one team of archaeologists working there decided to use an electromagnetic remote sensing tool to try to locate buried structures. Now, this remote sensing tool, which as I mentioned before, is usually used by geophysics. Um…. this tool can distinguish between different materials that look the same to the eye, but have different _______.Here's how it works. Regular soil conducts electricity well, but walls made of peat do not conduct electricity well. So the tool sends down _______ currents of electricity, and then measures how well the electric current travels through the ground in different places. Then you look at all of your data,look for patterns of electrical resistance, and this reveals where walls are located. So anyway, the team wanted to investigate a site in Iceland that looks like the place where the old saga says that the Thorfinnson built their home. And so they use this technique and found the remains of a large farmhouse there that they think probably did belong to that Thorfinnson family.Because when they dated the building, it _______ exactly to win that the Thorfinnson family should have been there according to the sagas. Now the team is working to find other evidence, especially personal artifacts, to show that it really was that family who lived there. Everyone had always thought that Thorfinnson house might be in that area, though, probably right underneath a nearby museum, where it might have been damaged during museum construction. But in fact, this Viking era structure was located in a field behind the museum, buried just below the surface. Thank goodness for the remote sensing tool, or this house might never have been found.
artifacts, volcanic, deposits, dwellings, bogs, organic, intrigued, accounts, draw, domestication, compositions, alternating, corresponded
1. What aspect of archaeology in Iceland does the professor mainly discuss?
A. Various techniques for dating archaeological sites
B. Causes of damage to a Viking-era house
C. Evidence of early agricultural tools
D. A method for locating buried structures
2. According to the professor, why are the remains of old Icelandic houses difficult for archaeologists to find?
A. The remains cannot be detected by a remote sensing tool
B. The remains are located in areas that are now covered by glaciers
C. The houses were made of material that is similar to the soil around them
D. The houses were extremely small
3. Why does the professor discuss Icelandic sagas about Viking explorers?
A. To help explain archaeologists' interest in Iceland
B. To help the students understand the climate of Iceland
C. To compare the geography of Iceland to that of North America
D. To provide an overview of the history of archaeology
4. According to the professor, what kind of data does the remote sensing tool provide?
A. The approximate age of different types of buried structures
B. The electrical conductivity of the ground at different locations
C. The chemical composition of different types of soil and peat
D. The temperature of the ground at different depths
5. What is the significance of the building that was found by using the remote sensing tool?
A. It might have been the first museum in Iceland
B. It might have been built with materials from North America
C. It may help prove that a story from the Icelandic sagas is true
D. It may be the only building in Iceland built of compressed peat
6. Why does the student say this
A. He thinks that the professor may have already answered his question
B. He wants the professor to repeat what she just said
C. He is sorry that he missed last week's lecture
D. He cannot hear what the professor is saying
1、D 2、C 3、A 4、B 5、C 6、A
Listen to part of a lecture in an environmental science class.
Before we get started, I want to tell you a little story. I guess it was about ten years ago, I decided...with my family, I decided it was time to buy a house. And my two kids really wanted a house near the ocean as close to the beach as possible. Well, I try to explain all the reasons that building near the ocean just didn't make sense environmentally, but the kids still wanted a house near the ocean. So my wife and I looked at a few houses and they were beautiful. There was one we saw that I still call our family's dream house. But we were lucky. Um, and I'll tell you why in a moment.Um, when we realized that we just couldn't afford any of those houses.
So I said building near the ocean doesn't make sense environmentally. But what is it about the coastal environment that makes most of the land there unsuitable as a building site? Let me explain coastal zones first. Imagine standing at the water's edge and moving away from the ocean. We come across different coastal zones, going in order, they are the beach, which I'm sure you're all familiar with.Second is the _______ dune, which is the most _______ zone. Next is the trough. That's trough,trough, after the trough is the secondary dune. And finally you come to what's called the back dune.
So the beach, if I say it's not advisable to build houses on the beach, uh, right on the _______, I don't think you'd find it difficult to imagine why. You've got the sand, which is not very supportive for building, and you've got daily _______ fluctuations. Keep in mind too, that the sands are always shifting and the shore line is moving. Right near here, you've got sandy _______, and you can walk out on that peninsula almost a mile to sandy point. But it wasn't that long ago, I think, back when my grandfather was a boy, that sandy point was an island, and you couldn't just walk there from the mainland. Right? The sands shift and the shore land moved. Before we continue this imaginary walk. I want you to think for a minute. Why are these coastal zones important? Well, environmentally, their role is protecting the inshore area, from being flooded with salt water, from being damaged during storms, and they allow vegetation to grow further inland by providing sort of a _______ zone to protect against wind and salt spray.
All right, let's go back to our walk on the beach. Okay, after the beach, I said, you've got the primary dune. Now you shouldn't build on a beach, but it's ok for _______, that's good. But the primary doom really cannot support building or recreation. It's more sensitive than the beach. If you think of a sand dune as just a windblown pile of sand, that's wrong. Sand dunes can support vegetation. And the primary dune is where the vegetation first begins to take hold, but it's fragile and easily disturbed. And what happens when the vegetation is disturbed is that the sand dunes from the beach can _______ inland, leaving less sand on the beach and less sand on the beach. Well, that's beach erosion.You've probably seen beaches which used to be very wide that seem to be _______. Beach erosion is often caused by destroying the primary dune.
After the primary doom, we come to the trough. Now the trough is _______ of limited recreational use and some building. The vegetation is thicker and the ground more stable. Care should be taken to preserve the quality of the ground water. But in general, it’s okay to build here. After the trough is the secondary dune. This is sort of the final defense against the sea. And like the primary doom, no building should take place here. The last zone will look at is the back down. It's further inland and more suitable for development than any of the other zones.
So the first two zones we looked at, the beach and the primary doom are probably the worst places for building. And where do people most want to build? Exactly, the beach and the primary dune. We're talking about very valuable real _______ right on the ocean. I mean to build on the beach. Today, you may be a hundred meters from the water's edge, and in a few years, the water's edge may be right in your living room. And that's what happened to our dream house. A storm brought the water's edge right up to the house. Afterwards, the water receded, but the action of the waves removed so much sand that the house was now unstable. It was now impossible to live in this beautiful and very expensive house.
primary, fragile, shoreline, tidal, peninsula, buffer, recreation, migrate, shrinking, tolerant, estate
1. What is the professors main point about coastal zones?
A. They are all constantly changing
B. They are all likely to be damaged during storms
C. They are not all suitable locations for buildings
D. They are not all capable of supporting vegetation
2. According to the professor, what change has taken place at Sandy Point?
A. The houses on Sandy Point are no longer safe to live in
B. New environmental laws prohibit building and recreation
C. Both the beach and the primary dune have eroded
D. Shorelines in the area are different than they were years ago
3. The professor discusses five coastal zones. Place a check in the box that describes whether or not the zone is suitable for building
4. What function does the story of the dream house serve in the lecture?
A. As a realistic example of the rising price of houses
B. As a dramatic illustration of the main point of the lecture
C. As a device to get students to use their imagination
D. As a way of explaining how the professor became interested in coastal development
5. How does the professor organize the information about coastal zones?
A. From the most to the least fragile
B. By the amount of vegetation they can support
C. By the amount of groundwater they usually contain
D. By their geographic location starting at the water's edge
6. Why does the professor say this
A. He wants to complete the lecture outside
B. He wants to continue his previous narrative
C. He wants the students to enjoy a mental picture of a beautiful landscape
D. He wants to tell the class about a conversation he had with his family