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托福TPO55阅读原文、题目、答案解析及下载-How Herding Can Provide Safety

来源:原创作品 | 2019-08-16402

托福TPO55阅读原文、题目、答案解析及下载-HowHerdingCanProvideSafetyInopengrasslandsthereisnoplaceforalargeanimaltohide.■Thusawatchfulgrazinganimalwillseetheslightmovementthatbetray

托福TPO55阅读原文、题目、答案解析及下载-How Herding Can Provide Safety
In open grasslands there is no place for a large animal to hide. ■ Thus a watchful grazing animal will see the slight movement that betrays the presence of a predator long before it is close enough to launch an attack. It sounds as though the hunters (predators) stand no chance at all. ■ Unfortunately for the grazers, life is not so simple, however. ■ A grazing animal must lower its head and look at the ground to feed. ■ Its attention may be occupied for only a few seconds before it raises its head and resumes its watch while chewing the food it took: but hunters are patient and skillful and are concentrating intensely. Those few seconds provide time enough to advance a few steps and then freeze, body flattened against the ground. It may take hours: but eventually these repeated small advances will put the hunter within range-close enough to outrun its prey -and the long time the hunt has taken will have been worthwhile, because the resulting feast will be highly nutritious. Clearly the grazers are at a disadvantage, because while they eat they are vulnerable to attack. The hunters also have a weakness, however: and it is one that allows the grazers to survive. Hunters can attack only one prey animal at a time. This applies even to the predators that hunt as a team, such as lionesses, wolves, and hunting dogs. Their hunt involves running down or ambushing an individual. Teamwork allows them to hunt animals much bigger and stronger than themselves and to hunt more successfully, but it does not allow them to attack more than one individual at a time.

The grazers exploit this weakness by making it as difficult as they can for the predators to choose an individual as a target. They do not graze alone: scattered widely across the landscape, but together as a herd. The approaching hunter sees not a solitary animal, but a crowd of animals, all of them moving, so they are constantly crossing and recrossing each other's paths. No sooner does the hunter choose an individual than another animal has crossed in front of it and the target has disappeared into the herd From the hunter's point of view this is highly confusing behavior-as, indeed, it is meant to be.

There is another advantage to the grazers: A herd is much more alert than a solitary animal. An animal has to relax its guard while it is taking food; but in a herd there are at any time some animals with their heads down, biting, and others, with their heads up, watching. What is more, those with their heads up are looking in different directions so that together they are alert to any movement anywhere on the landscape around them. There is no way for a hunter toapproacha herd unobserved. When a member of the herd spots trouble, it starts to move away. Other members of the herd move with it and the entire herd starts to move. If the trouble is serious and close, the herd will run. The individual raising the alarm is simply protecting itself but in doing so it is warning all of the others.

Herding is highly successful, provided members of the herd stay together in a tight bunch. The hunter moves with the herd: watching for an individual to wander away from the others. When that happens, it tries to move between that individual and the rest of the herd, preventing it from rejoining. Once it has done that the hunter has a good chance of making a kill. If the herd starts to run, a solitary hunter may abandon the chase: but a pack of wolves or hunting dogs will regard the running herd of animals as an opportunity and set off in pursuit. As the herd runs, one or two old or sick animals, or young animals that become separated from their mothers, may fall behind.

As soon as the hunter or hunters seize their prey, they lose interest in all othepi grazers since then they, too, must concentrate on eating, at which point the herd stops running those who were left behind rejoin the group: and they all resumegrazing.


托福TPO55阅读真题题目:

29. The wordslightin the passage is closest in meaning to

A. hidden

B. slow

C. distant

D. small

Paragraph 1

30. According to paragraph 1, which of the following presents a serious difficulty for the predators that hunt animals grazing in grasslands?

A. It is difficult to find grazers in grasslands when they are feeding with their heads down.

B. Predators lack places to hide from prey in grasslands.

C. It is difficult for predators to outrun grazers on grasslands.

D. Grazers in open grasslands tend to be very large animals

Paragraph 1

31. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about grazing animals?

A. They spend significantly more time looking down at the ground than they do with their heads raised

B. They tend to remain within a relatively small area for extended periods of time.

C. They are extremely difficult for predators to see as long as they remain motionless.

D. They can run significantlyfaster than most of their predators

Paragraph 1

32. According to paragraph 1, how can a predator get close enough to a grazing animal to launch an attack?

A. By crawling steadilyforward with its body pressed to the ground

B. By moving very quickly and surprising its prey

C. By moving forward only when the grazer is taking food from the ground

D. By hiding in the grass and waiting patiently for its prey to move within range

Paragraph 1

33. According to paragraph 2, what is an advantage to predators that hunt as a team?

A. A team can kill animals that are much bigger and stronger than any of the predators could take on by itself.

B. A team can ambush their prey without having to run them down as an individual predator has to do.

C. A team can attack more prey animals at one time than an individual predator could.

D. A team is less vulnerable to an aggressive response from grazers.

Paragraph 2

34. In paragraph 2, why does the author describe the hunting technique used by predators that hunt as a team?

A. To explain why predators that hunt as a team wait until grazers start eating to attack

B. To argue that species that hunt as a team do not have the same weakness as individual predators

C. To emphasize that even predators that hunt in groups cannot hunt and attack more than one prey at a time

D. To help explain why grazers are at a particular disadvantage with certain predatory animals

35. The word approachin the passage is closest in meaning to

A. come nearer to

B. drive apart

C. attack

D. pursue

Paragraph 4

36. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 4 as a way in which animals that graze as a herd benefit?

A. Some animals in the herd will be in a position to observe danger while others have their heads down.

B. Each animal in a herd tries to protect the others from danger.

C. As a herd, animals can observe the landscape in a variety of directions at once.

D. The movement of any animal away from potential trouble warns all of the other animals within the herd.

37. The wordprovided in the passage is dosest in meaning to

A. if

B. because

C. unless

D. therefore

Paragraph 5

38. According to paragraph 5, any member of a herd is most at risk from predators when

A. it is very young

B. it becomes separated from the others

C. the herd includes relatively few old or sick animals

D. the herd begins to run

Paragraph 5

39. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? lncorred choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. The hunter or hunters are interested only in seizing their prey and not in any of the rest of the grazers in the herd.

B. Because the hunters must concentrate on eating once they make a kill, the rest of the herd can then stop running and resume grazing.

C. Once the hunters finish eating their prey, they lose interest in the rest of the herd that was left behind.

D. Because they must also concentrate on eating, herd animals resume grazing as soon as the hunter or hunters seize their prey.

Paragraph 6

40. Look at the four squarest [■ ^hat indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.This is because grasslands lack the trees and heavy bush to provide cove r for anything but very small animals.Where would the sentence best fit?Click on a square [■] to insert the sentence in the passage

41. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage This questions is worth 2 points Grazing in a herd rather than as solitary individuals decreases the risk to grazers from predators.

Answer Choices

A. If a grazer can spot a predator before it actually attacks, the grazer has a very good chance of getting away and since grasslands provide little cover for predators, the grazer always has the advantage

B. Hunters can attack only one grazer at a time: and where there are many animals moving back and forth and grazing together in a herd, it is difficult for hunte rs to maintain their focus on a single target.

C. When a member of a herd wanders away from the others or falls behind as the herd runs from danger, a hunter who manages to get between it and the herd stands a good chance of making a kill.

D. A grazer cannot watch for danger while feeding, so predators can use those moments gradually to approach a solitary animal unobserved; but in a herd there will always be some animals on alert.

E. When a herd of grazers spots the approach of a solitary hunter: it may run toward the hunter , which generally causes it to abandon the chase, but predators hunting as a pack are not so easily driven away

F. After a herd of running animals sees that the hunters pursuing it have stopped, the herd tries to help members of the group that were left behind.


托福TPO55阅读真题答案解析:

29.D

分类:词汇题

文章意为轻微的.小的动作

30.B

分类:细节题

从前两句可以得出B的结论

31.B

分类:推断题

A, A grazmg animal must lower its head and look at the ground to feed. Its attention may be occupied for only a few seconds before it raises its head aid

resumes its watch while chewing the food it took。并没有办法判断是低头时间长还是抬头时间长

C, 完全没有提及

D, 也没有提及速度

B, 选项从低头吃草抬头咀嚼可以推断出应该是小范囤内的一连串动作

32.C

分类:细节题

Tliose few seconds provide time enougi to advance a few steps and then freeze

这里的几秒指的是低头迸食的时间

33.A

分类:细节题

Teamwork allows them to hunt animals much bigger 扣id stronger thaii themselves and to hunt more successfolly

34•C

分类:修辞目的题

进一步强调第一段中集群狩猎也不能追捕多个目标 .来解释 Grazer行为的目的

35.A

分类:词汇题

掠食者在美有被发现的情况下靠近兽群

36.B

分类:排除题

A, at any tune some anunals with their heads dowi, biting, and others,with their heads up, watching.

C, those with their heads up are looking in different dictions

D, When a member of the herd spots trouble, it stalls to move away. Other members of the herd move with it and the entire herd starts to move.

37•A

分类:词汇题

可以用带入的方法去考察,只有A选项如果兽群集中在一起• herding十分成功能够表达附和逻辑的意思

38.B

分类:细节题

watching for an individual to wruider away fi'om the others.文章在接下来讲对于落毕的个体怎么处理至于老弱病残•本质上也是在跑动过程中落单了。

39.B

分类:句子改写题

原句意群包括,

捕食者收获猎物后丧失对其他猎物的兴趣

兽群继续进食

兽群停止移动.落下的个体赶上来

40.A

分类:句子插入题

本句意为.草原没有树或者灌木从作为掩体.解释了本段的第一句。

41.BCD

分类:文章小结题

A错在Always.我们知道至少落单的个体是不占优势的

E很明显•这个文章中没有提及

F也没有提及.文中说的是落下的会赶上.而兽群本身停下来抓紧时间进食


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