Herding is highly successful, provided members of the herd stay together in a tight bunch. The hunter moves with the herd: watching for an individual to wander away from the others. When that happens, it tries to move between that individual and the rest of the herd, preventing it from rejoining. Once it has done that the hunter has a good chance of making a kill. If the herd starts to run, a solitary hunter may abandon the chase: but a pack of wolves or hunting dogs will regard the running herd of animals as an opportunity and set off in pursuit. As the herd runs, one or two old or sick animals, or young animals that become separated from their mothers, may fall behind.
As soon as the hunter or hunters seize their prey, they lose interest in all othepi grazers since then they, too, must concentrate on eating, at which point the herd stops running those who were left behind rejoin the group: and they all resumegrazing.
29. The wordslightin the passage is closest in meaning to
30. According to paragraph 1, which of the following presents a serious difficulty for the predators that hunt animals grazing in grasslands?
A. It is difficult to find grazers in grasslands when they are feeding with their heads down.
B. Predators lack places to hide from prey in grasslands.
C. It is difficult for predators to outrun grazers on grasslands.
D. Grazers in open grasslands tend to be very large animals
31. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about grazing animals?
A. They spend significantly more time looking down at the ground than they do with their heads raised
B. They tend to remain within a relatively small area for extended periods of time.
C. They are extremely difficult for predators to see as long as they remain motionless.
D. They can run significantlyfaster than most of their predators
32. According to paragraph 1, how can a predator get close enough to a grazing animal to launch an attack?
A. By crawling steadilyforward with its body pressed to the ground
B. By moving very quickly and surprising its prey
C. By moving forward only when the grazer is taking food from the ground
D. By hiding in the grass and waiting patiently for its prey to move within range
33. According to paragraph 2, what is an advantage to predators that hunt as a team?
A. A team can kill animals that are much bigger and stronger than any of the predators could take on by itself.
B. A team can ambush their prey without having to run them down as an individual predator has to do.
C. A team can attack more prey animals at one time than an individual predator could.
D. A team is less vulnerable to an aggressive response from grazers.
34. In paragraph 2, why does the author describe the hunting technique used by predators that hunt as a team?
A. To explain why predators that hunt as a team wait until grazers start eating to attack
B. To argue that species that hunt as a team do not have the same weakness as individual predators
C. To emphasize that even predators that hunt in groups cannot hunt and attack more than one prey at a time
D. To help explain why grazers are at a particular disadvantage with certain predatory animals
35. The word approachin the passage is closest in meaning to
A. come nearer to
B. drive apart
36. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 4 as a way in which animals that graze as a herd benefit?
A. Some animals in the herd will be in a position to observe danger while others have their heads down.
B. Each animal in a herd tries to protect the others from danger.
C. As a herd, animals can observe the landscape in a variety of directions at once.
D. The movement of any animal away from potential trouble warns all of the other animals within the herd.
37. The wordprovided in the passage is dosest in meaning to
38. According to paragraph 5, any member of a herd is most at risk from predators when
A. it is very young
B. it becomes separated from the others
C. the herd includes relatively few old or sick animals
D. the herd begins to run
39. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? lncorred choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. The hunter or hunters are interested only in seizing their prey and not in any of the rest of the grazers in the herd.
B. Because the hunters must concentrate on eating once they make a kill, the rest of the herd can then stop running and resume grazing.
C. Once the hunters finish eating their prey, they lose interest in the rest of the herd that was left behind.
D. Because they must also concentrate on eating, herd animals resume grazing as soon as the hunter or hunters seize their prey.
40. Look at the four squarest [■ ^hat indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.This is because grasslands lack the trees and heavy bush to provide cove r for anything but very small animals.Where would the sentence best fit?Click on a square [■] to insert the sentence in the passage
41. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage This questions is worth 2 points Grazing in a herd rather than as solitary individuals decreases the risk to grazers from predators.
A. If a grazer can spot a predator before it actually attacks, the grazer has a very good chance of getting away and since grasslands provide little cover for predators, the grazer always has the advantage
B. Hunters can attack only one grazer at a time: and where there are many animals moving back and forth and grazing together in a herd, it is difficult for hunte rs to maintain their focus on a single target.
C. When a member of a herd wanders away from the others or falls behind as the herd runs from danger, a hunter who manages to get between it and the herd stands a good chance of making a kill.
D. A grazer cannot watch for danger while feeding, so predators can use those moments gradually to approach a solitary animal unobserved; but in a herd there will always be some animals on alert.
E. When a herd of grazers spots the approach of a solitary hunter: it may run toward the hunter , which generally causes it to abandon the chase, but predators hunting as a pack are not so easily driven away
F. After a herd of running animals sees that the hunters pursuing it have stopped, the herd tries to help members of the group that were left behind.
A, A grazmg animal must lower its head and look at the ground to feed. Its attention may be occupied for only a few seconds before it raises its head aid
resumes its watch while chewing the food it took。并没有办法判断是低头时间长还是抬头时间长
Tliose few seconds provide time enougi to advance a few steps and then freeze
Teamwork allows them to hunt animals much bigger 扣id stronger thaii themselves and to hunt more successfolly
进一步强调第一段中集群狩猎也不能追捕多个目标 .来解释 Grazer行为的目的
A, at any tune some anunals with their heads dowi, biting, and others,with their heads up, watching.
C, those with their heads up are looking in different dictions
D, When a member of the herd spots trouble, it stalls to move away. Other members of the herd move with it and the entire herd starts to move.
watching for an individual to wruider away fi'om the others.文章在接下来讲对于落毕的个体怎么处理至于老弱病残•本质上也是在跑动过程中落单了。
托福TPO55阅读原文、题目、答案解析及下载-Evolution of the Flowering Plants