托福TPO55阅读原文、题目、答案及下载-Mesolithic Complexity in Scandinavia
The European Mesolithic (roughly the period from 8000 B.C. to 2700 B.C.) testifies to a continuity in human culture from the times of the Ice Age. ■ This continuity, however was based on continuous adjustment to environmental changes following the end of the last glacial period (about 12,500 years ago). ■ Three broad subdivisions within the northern Mesolithic are known in Scandinavia. ■ The Maglemose Period (7500 -5700 B.C) was a time of seasonal exploitation of rivers and lakes, combined with terrestrial hunting and foraging. ■ The sites from the Kongemose Period (5700-4600 B.C.) are mainly on the Baltic Sea coasts, along bays and near lagoons, where the people exploited both marine and terrestrial resources. Many Kongemose sites are somewhat larger than Maglemose ones. The Ertebolle Period (4600-3200 B.C.) was the culmination of Mesolithic culture in southern Scandinavia。
By the Ertebolle Period, the Scandinavians were occupying coastal settlements year-round and subsisting off a very wide range of food sources These included forest game and waterfowl, shellfish, sea mammals, and both shallow-water and deepwater fish. There were smaller seasonal coastal sites, too: for specific activities such as deepwater fishing, sealing, or hunting of migratory birds. One such site, the Aggersundsite in Denmark,, was occupied for short periods of time in the autumn, when the inhabitants collected oysters and hunted some game, especially migratory swans. Ertebolle technology was far more elaborate than that of its Mesolithic predecessors; a wide variety of antler, bone: and wood tools for specialized purposes such as fowling and sea- mammal hunting were developed, including dugout canoes up to ten meters long.
With sedentary settlement comes evidence of greater social complexity in the use of cemeteries for burials and changes in burial practices. The trend toward more sedentary settlement the cemeteries, and the occasional social differentiation revealed by elaborate burials are all reflections of an intensified use of resources among these relatively affluent hunter-gatherers of 3000 B. C. Mesolithic societies intensified the food quest byexploiting many more marine species, making productive use of migratory waterfowl and their breeding grounds, and collecting shellfish in enormous numbers. This intensification is also reflected in a much more elaborate and diverse technology, more exchange of goods and materials between neighbors , greater variety in settlement types, and a slowly rising population throughout southern Scandinavia. These phenomena may, in part; be a reflection of rising sea levels throughout the Mesolithic that flooded many cherished territories. There are signs, too, of regional variations in artifact forms and styles, indicative of cultural differences between people living in well- delineated territories and competing for resources.
Mesolithic cultures are much less well-defined elsewhere in Europe, partly because the climatic changes were less e 邓 eme than in southern Scandinavia and because there were fewer opportunities for coastal adaptation. In much of central Europe, settlement was confined to lakeside and riverside locations, widely separated from one another by dense forests. Many Mesolithic lakeside sites were located in transitional zones between different environments so that the inhabitants could return to a central base location, where for much of the year they lived close to predictable resources such as lake fish. However, they would exploit both forest game and other seasonal resources from satellite camps. For example, the archaeologist Michael Jochim believes that some groups lived during most of the year in camps along the Danube River in central Europe, moving to summer encampments on the shores of neighboring lakes. In areas like Spain, there appears to have been intensified exploitation of marine and forest resources. There was a trend nearly everywhere toward greater variety in the diet, with more attention being paid to less obvious foods and to those that require more complex processing methods than do game and other such resources.
Thus, in parts of Europe, there was a long-term trend among hunter-gatherer societies toward a more extensive exploitation of food resources, often within the context of a strategy that sought ways to minimize the impact of environmental uncertainty. In more favored southern Scandinavia, such ocieties achieved a new level of social complexity that was to become commonplace among later farming peoples, and this preadaptation proved an ■mportant catalyst for rapid economic and social change when farming did come to Europe.
1. What can be inferred from paragraph about human life in Mesolithic Scandinavia?
A. People tended to live in smaller groups during the Ertebolle Period than during earlier Mesolithic periods.
B. The areas where it was advantageous to live changed over time as a result of environmental changes.
C. Human groups we re less affected by environmental change during the Maglemose Period than during the Kongemose Period
D. During most of the Mesolithic, people were more dependent on terrestrial food sources than other food sources.
2. Why does the author mention the Aggersund site in Denmark and its brief periods of occupation?
A. To suggest that the supply of year- round food sources near earlier settlement sites had nearly disappeared
B. To give an example of a small, temporary coastal site that took advantage of seasonal food sources
C. To illustrate how small coastal settlements could not last as long as large forest settlements
D. To highlight the fact that none of the Denmark camps were able to be occupied year-round
3. Paragraph 2 suggests that before the Ertebolle Period, hunting tools and other Mesolithic technologies
A. were available only in small coastal sites
B. were developed mainly in Denmark
C. were made mainly from animal bones
D. were somewhat simple
4. The word exploiting in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. calling attention to
B. focusing on
C. taking advantage of
D. searching for
5. The phrase Indicative of in the passage is closest in meaning to
B. leading to
C. resulting from
6. According to paragraph 3, the existence of cemeteries in Mesolithic Scandinavia is associated with
A. increased social complexity
B. problems in obtaining sufficient food
C. a dramatically increasing population
D. a trend toward reduced dependence on the food sources provided by hunter-gatherers
7. According to paragraph 3, each of the following is linked to the intensified use of resources that occurred in southern Scandinavia EXCEPT
A.greater complexity and diversity of technology
B. greater similarity between artifacts from different regions
C. more exchanges of goods between groups
D. more diversity in types of settlements
8. The phrase confined to in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. adapted to
B limited to
C. expanded to
D. located next to
9. Select the TWO answer choices that are discussed in paragraph 4 as factors that explain why Mesolithic culture in Scandinavia developed differently from Mesolithic cultures in other parts of Europe.To receive credit.you must choose TWO answers from the answer choices
B. Population numbers
C. The size of satellite camps
D. The location of sites of human habitation
10. According to paragraph 4, how were Mesolithic societies in central Europe able to meet their food needs for much of the year?
A. By finding new opportunities for coastal adaptations wherever they could
B. By keeping their base camps in dense forests with plenty of forest game
C. By settling in areas that provided both predictable food resources and access to different kinds of environments
D. By hunting farther and father from their central base camps each day
11. The author includes the views of Micheal Jochim for which the following reasons?
A. To show that Mesolithic cultures in other parts of Europe were less welldefined than Mesolithic cultures in southern Scandinavia
B. To help explain why it became necessary for Mesolithic populations to pay more attention to less obvious foods and foods requiring more complex processing
C. To provide evidence that opportunities for coastal development were generally much greater in Central Europe than elsewhere in Europe
D. To support the idea that populations in Central Europe stayed in a central location much of the year but relocated to be closer to seasonal resources
12. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? lncorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Because of favorable conditions in southern Scandinavia and the social complexity of their societies, hunter-gatherer societies did not adapt to farming until economic change required it.
B. When farming came to Europe and became common, hunter-gatherer societies finally achieved high levels of social complexity.
C. Social complexity was common in the societies of southern Scandinavia but was less common in other areas where farming came later.
D. Hunter-gatherer societies in southern Scandinavia achieved a new level of social complexity, and this allowed them to quickly achieve economic and social change when farming was introduced.
13. Look at the four squarest [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage
Such adaptation involved changes in hunting and food gathering that make it possible to identify distinct Mesolithic periods and cultures in some regions.
Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■ ] to insert the sentence in the passage
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This questions is worth 2 points
Throughout the European Mesolithic, the trend was toward greater social complexity and greater exploitation of food resources.
A. Early in the Mesolithic, Maglemose hunter-gatherers arrived in Scandinavia from regions beyond the Baltic Sea and began to establish seasonal sites along bays and near lagoons.
B. In Scandinavia: populations were growing and becoming more sedentary, leading to more elaborate burials and to exchanges of goods with other groups.
C. Because most Mesolithic populations outside of Scandinavia were widely separated by deep forest, they tended to develop more economically and socially complex societies.
D. By the end of the Mesolithic, Scandinavians had developed elaborate and specialized tools for exploiting a very wide range of food sources
E. Climate change forced southern Scandinavians to leave coastal areas and relocate to Central Europe, where they took advantage of food resources in dense forests and lakes.
F. The stages of Mesolithic culture in Scandinavia, unlike those in other parts of Europe, are more distinct in part because climate changes were more extreme in Scandinavia.
解析： 1.分类：细节题定位Mesolithic Scandinavia,在第一段首找到时间前后的对比， Tie European Mesolithic (rougily the period fi-om 8000 B.C. to 2700 B.C.) testifies to a continuity in huinai culture from the times of the Ice Age. T1iis contUmity, however was based on contuiuous adjustment to environmental changes following the end of the last glacial period (about 12,500 years ago)对应选择 B
2•分类：目的题冋题冋提到这个例子的理由，找定位前面的观点句， Tliere were smaller seasonal coastal sites, too: for specific activities such as deepwater fishing, sealuig, or hunting of migratory birds•对应选择 B 选项
3•分类：推断题定位到 before the Eitebolle Period, hunting tools and other Mesolithic technologies 的相关内容： Eitebolle technology was far more elaborate than that of its Mesolithic predecessors从这里的对比可以推断出以前的科技非常简单对应选择D
6.分类：细节题定位到第三段 cemeteries ii Mesolithic Scandinavia: With sedentary settlement comes evidence of gieater social complexity ui the use of cemeteries for burials and changes in burial practices•对应 A 选项正确
the trend towaid more sedentary settlement the cemeteries,and the occasional social differentiation revealed by elaborate burials aie all reflections of an intensified use of resources ainong these relatively affluent hunter-gatherers of 3000 B.C.对应ACD.排除题对应选择B
9. 分类：细节题定位到第四段中，becaise the climatic chaiiges were less extreme thmi in southern Scaiidinavia and because there were fewer opportunities for coastal adaptation.对应AD选项正确
10.分类：细节题定位到原文中找对应细节， Many Mesolithic lakeside sites were located in transitional zones between different environments so that the inhabitants could return to a central base location, Wiere for much of the year they lived close to predictable resources such as lake fish.对应 C 选项正确
11.分类：目的题定位到Micheal Jochim的地方.发现是一个例子到例子前后找为了说明的观点， they would exploit both forest §ame and other seasonal resources from satellite camps. For example， the archaeologist Michael Jochim believes... lti areas like Spain. there appears to have been intensified exploitation of maiine and forest resources.对应D选项
13.分类：句子插入题关键词 Such adaptation 对应 continuous adjustment to environmental changes. 所以放在B比较合适
14. 分类：文章小结题 D选项是第二段的小结.最后两段总结对应F选项，第三段首句With sedentaiy settlement comes evidence of greater social complexity in the use of cemeteries for burials and changes in burial practices 对应B选项