Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.
This passage is adapted from Willa Cather, 0 Pioneers! Originally published in 1913. John Bergson is a farmer on his deathbed. Alexandra Bergson is his teenage daughter.
In eleven long years John Bergson had made but little impression upon the wild land he had come to tame. It was still a wild thing that had its ugly moods; and no one knew when they were likely to come, or why. Mischance hung over it. Its Genius was unfriendly to man. The sick man was feeling this as he lay looking out of the window, after the doctor had left him, on the day following Alexandra's trip to town. There it lay outside his door, the same land, the same lead-colored miles. He knew every ridge and draw and gully between him and the horizon. To the south, his plowed fields; to the east, the sod stables, the cattle corral, the pond, —and then the grass.
John Bergson had the Old-World belief that land, in itself, is desirable. But this land was an enigma. It was like a horse that no one knows how to break to harness, that runs wild and kicks things to pieces. He had an idea that no one understood how to farm it properly, and this he often discussed with Alexandra.
Their neighbors, certainly, knew even less about farming than he did. Many of them had never worked on a farm until they took up their homesteads. They had been handwerkers at home; tailors, locksmiths, joiners, cigar-makers, etc. Bergson himself had worked in a shipyard.
For weeks, John Bergson had been thinking about these things. His bed stood in the sitting-room, next to the kitchen. Through the day, while the baking and washing and ironing were going on, the father lay and looked up at the roof beams that he himself had hewn, or out at the cattle in the corral. He counted the cattle over and over. It diverted him to speculate as to how much weight each of the steers would probably put on by spring. He often called his daughter in to talk to her about this. Before Alexandra was twelve years old she had begun to be a help to him, and as she grew older he had come to depend more and more upon her resourcefulness and good judgment. His boys were willing enough to work, but when he talked with them they usually irritated him. It was Alexandra who read the papers and followed the markets, and who learned by the mistakes of their neighbors. It was Alexandra who could always tell about what it had cost to fatten each steer, and who could guess the weight of a hog before it went on the scales closer than John Bergson himself. Lou and Oscar were industrious, but he could never teach them to use their heads about their work. Alexandra, her father often said to himself, was like her grandfather; which was his way of saying that she was intelligent. John Bergson's father had been a shipbuilder, a man of considerable force and of some fortune. Late in life he married a second time, a Stockholm woman of questionable character, much younger than he, who goaded him into every sort of extravagance. On the shipbuilder's part, this marriage was an infatuation, the despairing folly of a powerful man who cannot bear to grow old. In a few years his unprincipled wife warped the probity of a lifetime.He speculated, lost his own fortune and funds entrusted to him by poor seafaring men, and died disgraced, leaving his children nothing. But when all was said, he had come up from the sea himself, had built up a proud little business with no capital but his own skill and foresight, and had proved himself a man. In his daughter, John Bergson recognized the strength of will, and the simple direct way of thinking things out, that had characterized his father in his better days. He would much rather, of course, have seen this likeness in one of his sons, but it was not a question of choice. As he lay there day after day he had to accept the situation as it was, and to be thankful that there was one among his children to whom he could entrust the future of his family and the possibilities of his hard-won land.
1、A central theme developed in the passage is that of the
A) danger of exploiting the environment for material gain.
B) dependability of family despite past conflict among members.
C) foolishness of denying the inevitability of old age.
D) futility of seeking to gain full mastery over the natural world.
答案：D.全文是围绕土地开垦展开的，JohnBergson面对这片wild land感到心有余而力不足， 并寄希望于孩子身上，所以抽象改写为gain full mastery over the natural world所作的徒劳努力。A选项错在并没有讲dang er;B选项错在没有提及past conflict; C选项错在old age 只是其中的一个细节， 并不能作为全文的主旨。
2、Over the course of the passage, the main focus of John Bergson's thoughts shifts from the
A) weaknesses that he deplores in his sons to the strengths that he prizes in his daughter.
B) initial difficulty that he faced as a novice farmer to his eventual achievement as an experienced farmer.
C) challenges of being a successful farmer to those of being a successful shipbuilder.
D) physical qualities of his land to the personal qualities that he values most in a potential successor.
答案：D. 文章结构题。第一段讲了JohnBergson对wild land的印象， 笫二段this land was an enigma,围绕Bergson不知道如何耕作土地展开。因此对应D选项的前半部分physical qualities of his land; 从笫三段开始讲到了Bergson对和女儿Alexandra讨论土地的耕作， 和儿子形成了鲜明的对比;笫四段讲了Alexandra才是最佳人选， 对应D选项的后半部分the person al qualities that he values most in a potential successor.
3、The simile in lines 14-17 ("It was ... pieces") primarily serves which function?
A) It expands on the characterization provided in lines 3-5 ("It was ... why").
B) It contrasts with the images evoked in lines 5-6 ("Mischance ... to man").
C) It highlights the belief conveyed in lines 14-15 ("John ... desirable").
D) It reinforces the details presented in lines 22-25 ("They ... shipyard") .
答案：A. 寻证题。这句话用了比喻的手法，”就像一匹无法驯化并装上马具的烈马", it这里指的是this land, 表达John B ergson对这片土地束手无策。与之相对应的是A选项， It指的是上一句中的 wild land, ugly moods不知道什么时候会来， 也不知道为什么会来。这句话也用了拟人的手法， 土地的“糟糕性情” 让人捉摸不透。
4、In the passage, the main contrast that John Bergson draws between himself and his neighbors is that his neighbors
A) had previously worked in urban areas while he had always worked in rural ones.
B) are less skilled than he is at the occupation that they all have in common.
C) resisted becoming homestead farmers, whereas he was eager to be one.
D) had better luck with their particular parcels of land than he did with his.
5、As used in line 42, "followed" most nearly means
A) came after.
B) imitated closely.
C) kept under guard.
D) stayed informed about.