雅思阅读真题+题目+答案：The Roll film Revolution
The introduction of the dry plate process brought with it many advantages. Not only was it much more convenient, so that the photographer no longer needed to prepare his material in advance, but its much greater sensitivity made possible a new generation of cameras. Instantaneous exposures had been possible before, but only with some difficulty and with special equipment and conditions. Now, exposures short enough to permit the camera to the held in the hand were easily achieved. As well as fitting shutters and viewfinders to their conventional stand cameras, manufacturers began to construct smaller cameras in tended specifically for hand use.
One of the first designs to be published was Thomas Bolas s Detective camera of 1881. Externally a plain box, quite unlike the folding bellows camera typical of the period, it could be used unobtrusively. The name caught on, and for the next decade or so almost all hand cameral were called Detectives, Many. of the new designs in the 1880s were for magazine cameras, in which a number of dry plates could be pre-loaded and changed one after another following exposure. Although much more convenient than stand cameras, still used by most serious workers, magazine plate cameras were heavy, and required access to a darkroom for loading and processing the plates. This was all changed by a young American bank clerk turned photographic manufacturer, George Eastman, from Rochester, New York.
Eastman had begun to manufacture gelatine dry plates in 1880. being one of the first to do so in America. He soon looked for ways of simplifying photography, believing that many people were put off by the complication and messiness. His first step was to develop, wih the camera manufacturer William H. Walker, a holder for a long roll of paper negative film. This could be fitted to a standard plate camera and up to forty-eight exposures made before reloading. The combined weight of the paper roll and the holder was far less than the same number of glass plates in their ling-tight wooden holders. Although roll-holders had been made as early as the 1850s, none had been very successful be cause of the limitations of the photographic materials then available. Eastmans rollable paper film was sensitive and gave negatives of good quality; the Eastman-Walker roll-holder was a great success.
The next step was to combine the roll-holder with a small hand camera; Eastmans first design was patented with an employee, F. M. Cossitt, in 1886. It was not a success. Only fifty Eastman detective cameras were made, and they were sold as a lot to a dealer in 1887; the cost was too high and the design too complicated. Eastman set about developing a new model, which was launched in June 1888. It was a small box, containing a roll of paperbased stripping film sufficient for 100 circular exposures 6 cm in diameter. Its operation was simple: set the shutter by pulling a wire string; aim the camera using the V line impression in the camera top; press the release botton to activate the exposure; and turn a special key to wind to the film. A hundred exposures had to be made, so it was important to record each picture in the memorandum book provided, since there was no exposure counter. Eastman gave his camera the invented name
Kodak-which was easily pronounceable in most languages. and had two Ks which Eastman felt was a firm, uncompromising kind of letter. The importance of Eastmans new roll-film camera was not that it was the first. There had been several earlier cameras, notably the Stirn America, first demonstrated in the spring of 1887 and on sale from early 1888. This also used a roll of negative paper, and had such refinements as a reflecting viewfinder and an ingenious exposure marker. The real significance of the first Kodak camera was that it was backed up by a developing and printing service. Hitherto ,virtually all photographers developed and printed their own pictures. This required that facilities of a darkroom and the time and inclination to handle the necessary chemicals, make the prints and so on. Eastman recognized that not everyone had the resources or the desire to do this. When a customer had made a hundred exposures in the Kodak camera, he sent it to Eastmans factory in Rochester where the film was unloaded, processed and printed, the camera reloaded and returned to the owner. You Press the Button, We Do the Rest ran Eastmans classic marketing slogan; photography had been brought to everyone. Everyone, that is, who could afford $ 25 or five guineas for the camera and $ 10 or two guineas for the developing and printing . A guinea was a weeks wages for many at the time, so this simple camera cost the equivalent of hundreds of dollars today.
In 1889 an improved model with a new shutter design was introduced, and it was called the No. 2 Kodak camera. The paper-based stripping film was complicated to manipulate, since the processed negative image had to be stripped from the paper base for printing. At the end of 1889 Eastman launched a new roll film on a celluloid base. Clear, tough, transparent and flexible, the new film not only made the rollfilm camera fully practical, but provided the raw material for the introduction of cinematography a few years later. Other, larger models were introduced, including several folding versions, one of which took pictures 21.6 cm x 16.5 cm in size. Other manufacturers in America and Europe introduced cameras to take the Kodak roll-films, and other firms began to offer developing and printing services for the benefit of the new breed of photographers.
By September 1889 , over 5,000 Kodak cameras had been sold in the USA, and the company was daily printing 6-7,000 negatives, Holidays and special events created enormous surges in demand for processing: 900 Kodak users returned their cameras for processing and reloading in the week after the New York centennial celebration.
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in the Reading Passage ?
In boxes 26-29 on your answer sheet write
YES if the statement agrees with the writer
NO if the statement does agree with the writer
NOTGIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage
26. Before the dry plate process short exposures could only b achieved with cameras held in the hand.
27. Stirns America camera lacked Kodaks developing service.
28. The first Kodak film cost the equivalent of a weeks wages to develop.
29. Some of Eastmans 1891 range of cameras could be loaded in daylight.
Complete the diagram below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet.