雅思阅读真题+题目+答案：The Legendary of Tea
The story of tea began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. According to legend, Shen Nung, an early emperor was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required, among other things, that all drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. One summer day while visiting a distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his ruling, the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from the near by bush fell into the boiling water, and a brown liquid was infused into the water. As a scientist, the Emperor was interested ir the new liquid, drank some, and found it very refreshing. And so, according to legend, tea was created
Tea consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture reaching into every aspect of the society. In 800 A.D, Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on tea, the Ch'a Ching.His work clearly showed the Zen Buddhist philosophy to which he was exposed as a child. It was this form of tea service that Zen Buddhist missionaries would later introduce to imperial Japan.
The first tea seeds were brought to Japan by the returning Buddhist priest Yeisei, who had seen the value of tea in China in enhancing religious mediation. As a result, he is known as the "Father of Tea" in Japan. Because of this early association, tea in Japan has always been associated with Zen Buddhism. Tea received almost instant imperialsponsorship and spread rapidly from the royal court and monasteries to the other sections of Japanese society.
Tea was elevated to an art form resulting in the creation of the Japanese Tea Ceremony. The best description of this complex art form was probably written by the Irish-Greek journalist-historian Lafcadio Hearn, one of the few foreigners ever to be granted Japanese citizenship during this era. He wrote from personal observation, "The Tea ceremony requires years of training and practice to graduate in art...yet the whole of this art, as to its detail, signifies no more than the making and serving of a cup of tea. The supremely important matter is that the act be performed in the most perfect, most polite, most graceful, most charming manner possible."
Such a purity of form, of expression prompted the creation of supportive arts and services. A special form of architecture developed for "tea houses", based on the duplication of the simplicity of a forest cottage. The cultural/artistic hostesses of Japan, the Geishi, began to specialise in the presentation of the tea ceremony. As more and more people became involved in the excitement surrounding tea, the purity of the original Zen concept was lost. The tea ceremony became corrupted, boisterous and highly embellished. "Tea Tournaments" were held among the wealthy where nobles competed among each other for rich prizes in naming various tea blends.Rewarding winners with gifts of silk, armor, and jewelry was totally alien to the original Zen attitude of the ceremony.
The first European to personally encounter tea and write about it was the Portuguese Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in 1560. Portugal, with her technologically advanced navy, had been successful in gaining the first right of trade with China. The Portuguese developed a trade route by which they shipped their tea to Lisbon, and then Dutch ships transported it to France, Holland, and the Baltic countries. Because of the success of the Dutch navy in the Pacific, tea became very fashionable in the Dutch capital. This was due in part to the high cost of the tea (over $100 per pound) which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy. Slowly, as the amount of tea imported increased, the price fell as the volume of sale expanded.
As the consumption of tea increased dramatically in Dutch society, doctors and university authorities argued back and forth as to the negative and/or positive benefits.of tea. Known as "tea heretics", the public largely ignored the scholarly debate andcontinued to enjoy their new beverage though the controversy lasted from 1635 to roughly 1657. Throughout this period France and Holland led Europe in the use of tea.
As the craze for things oriental swept Europe, tea became part of the way of life. The social critic Marie de Rabutin made the first mention in 1680 of adding milk to tea.During the same period, Dutch inns provided the first restaurant service of tea. Tavern owners would furnish guests with a portable tea set complete with a heating unit. The independent Dutchman would then prepare tea for himself and his friends outside in the tavern's garden. Tea remained popular in France for only about fifty years, being replaced by a stronger preference for wine, chocolate, and exotic coffees.
By 1650 the Dutch were actively involved in trade throughout the Western world.Peter Stuyvesant brought the first tea to America to the colonists in the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (later re-named New York by the English). Settlers here were confirmed tea drinkers. And indeed, on acquiring the colony, the English found that the small settlement consumed more tea at that time then all of England put together.
Great Britain was the last of the three great sea-faring nations to break into the Chinese and East Indian trade routes. The first samples of tea reached England between 1652 and 1654. Tea quickly proved popular enough to replace ale as the national drink of England. Tea mania swept across England as it had earlier spread throughout France and Holland. Tea importation rose from 40.000 pounds in 1699 to an annual average of 240,000 pounds by 1708. Tea was drunk by all levels of society.
The Reading Passage contains 10 paragraphs A-J.
Which paragraphs state the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
1 Coffee took the place of tea.
2 Religious implications were abandoned
3 Tea aroused controversies in Europe
4 Tea was once the symbol of the wealth in Dutch.
5 A kind of art was born related to tea.
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed 6-10) with opinions or deeds listed A-J) below
Write the appropriate letter (A-J) in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.
6 Jasper de Cruz
7 Peter Stuyvesant
8 Lu Yu
9 Lafcadio Hearn
10 Shen Nun
A. ..discovered the value of tea as a refreshing drink.
B. published the book about tea and Buddhism...
C. .introduced tea to Japanese society....
D. depicted the art of tea ceremony.
E .elevated tea drinking to art...
E. realised the value of tea in strengthen religious intervention..
F. wrote about tea and his country started the first tea trading with China.
H .developed a trade route by shipping tea to LisbonI.
I first brought tea to AmericaI .
J brought the first tea to Americans in Dutch.