A However much we may abhor it ,deception comes naturally to all living things .Birds do it by feigning injury to lead hungry predators away from nesting young .Spider crabs do it by disguise :adorning themselves with strips of kelp and other debris ,they pretend to be something they are not-and so escape their enemies .Nature amply rewards successful deceivers by allowing them to survive long enough to mate and reproduce .So it may come as no surprise to learn that human beings-who ,according to psychologist Gerald Jellison of the University of SouthCalifornia ,are lied to about 200 times a day , roughly one untruth every five minutes - often deceive for exactly the same reasons : to save their own skins or to get something they can't get by other means .
B But knowing how to catch deceit can be just as important a survival skill as knowing how to tell a lie and get away with it .A person able to spot falsehood quickly is unlikely to be swindled by an unscrupulous business associate or hoodwinked by a devious spouse .Luckily ,nature provides more than enough clues to trap dissemblers in their own tangled webs-if you know where to look .By closely observing facial expressions ,bodylanguage and tone of voice ,practically anyone can recognise the telltale signs of lying .Researchers are even programming computers-like those used on Lie Detector-to get at the truth by analysing the same physical cues available to the naked eye and ear ."Withthe proper training ,many people can learn to reliably detect lies ,"saysPaul Ekman ,professor of psychology at the University of California ,San Francisco ,who has spent the past 15 years studying the secret art of deception .
C In order to know what kind of lies work best ,successful liars need to accurately assess other people's emotional states .Ekman's research shows that this same emotional intelligence is essential for good lie detectors ,too .The emotional state to watch out for is stress ,theconflictmost liars feel between the truth and what they actually say and do .
D Even high-tech lie detectors don't detect lies as such ;they merely detect the physical cues of emotions ,which may or may not correspond to what the person being tested is saying .Polygraphs ,for instance ,measure respiration ,heart rate and skin conductivity , which tend to increase when people are nervous-as they usually are when lying .Nervous people typically perspire ,and the salts contained in perspiration conduct electricity .That's why a sudden leap in skin conductivity indicates nervousness-about getting caught ,perhaps ?-whichmight , in turn ,suggest that someone is being economical with the truth .On the other hand ,it might also mean that the lightsin the television studio are too hot-which is one reason polygraph tests are inadmissible in court ." Goodlie detectors don't relyon a single sign ,"Ekmansays ," butinterpret clusters of verbal and nonverbal clues that suggest someone might be lying .
E Those clues are written all over the face .Because the musculature of the face is directly connected to the areas of the brain that process emotion ,the countenance can be a window to the soul .Neurologicalstudies even suggest that genuine emotions travel different pathways through the brain than insincere ones .If a patient paralysed by stroke on one side of the face ,for example ,is asked to smile deliberately ,only the mobile side of the mouth is raised .But tell that same person a funny joke ,and the patient breaks into a full and spontaneous smile .Very few people most notably ,actors and politicians-are able to consciously control all of their facial expressions .Liescan often becaught when the liar's true feelings briefly leak through the mask of deception ." Wedon't think before we feel ,"Ekmansays ." Expressionstend to show up on the face before we're even conscious of experiencing an emotion ."
F One of the most difficult facial expressions to conceal ,if it is genuinely felt is sadness .When someone is truly sad , the forehead wrinkles with grief and the inner corners of the eyebrows are pulled up .Fewer than 15% of the people Ekman tested were able to produce this eyebrow movement voluntarily .By contrast ,the lowering of the eyebrows associated with an angry scowl can be replicated at will by almost everybody ." Ifsomeone claims they are sad and the inner comers of their eyebrows don't go up ,"Ekmansays ,"the sadness is probably false ."
G The smile ,on the other hand ,is one of the easiest facial expressions to counterfeit .It F One of the most difficult facial expressions to conceal ,if it is genuinely felt is sadness .When someone is truly sad , the forehead wrinkles with grief and the inner corners of the eyebrows are pulled up .Fewer than 15% of the people Ekman tested were able to produce this eyebrow movement voluntarily .By contrast ,the lowering of the eyebrows associated with an angry scowl can be replicated at will by almost everybody ." Ifsomeone claims they are sad and the inner comers of their eyebrows don't go up ,"Ekmansays ,"the sadness is probably false ."
G The smile ,on the other hand ,is one of the easiest facial expressions to counterfeit .It takes just two muscles-the zygomaticus major muscles that extend from the cheekbones to the corners of the lips -takes just two muscles-the zygomaticus major muscles that extend from the cheekbones to the corners of the lips -to produce a grin .But there's a catch .A genuine smile affects not only the corners of the lips but also the orbicularis oculi ,the muscle around the eye that produces the distinctive "crow's-feet"associatedwith people who laugh a lot .A counterfeit grin people who laugh a lot .Acounterfeitgrin can be unmasked if the lip corners go up , the eyes crinkle but the inner corners of the eyebrows are not lowered ,a movement controlled by the orbicularis oculi that is difficult to fake .The absence of lowered eyebrows is one reason why false smiles look so strained and stiff .
H Ekman and his colleagues have classified all the muscle movements - rangingfrom the thin ,taut lips of fury to the arched eyebrows of surprise-that underlie the complete repertoire of human facial expressions .In addition to the nervous tics and jitters that can give liars away ,Ekman discovered that fibbers often allow the truth to slip through in brief ,unguarded facial expressions .Lasting no more than a quarter of a second ,these fleeting glimpses of a person's true emotional state or "microexpressions,"asEkman calls them are reliable guides to veracity .
I In moderation ,lying is a normaleven necessary part of life ." Itwould be an impossible world if no one lied ,"Ekman says .But by the same token ,it would be an intolerable world if we could never tell when someone was lying .For those lies that are morally wrong and potentially harmful ,would-be lie detectors can learn a lot from looking and listening very carefully .Cheating partners ,snake oil salesmen and scheming politicians , beware !The truth is out there .
Reading Passage has nine paragraphs, A-1
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-1, in boxes 1-9 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
1 Hard to judge whether a movie star tells a lie
2 Building a databank of human facial expressions.
3 Why sweating might be a clue
4 The easiest facial expressions by which people can identify a lie
5 The importance of differentiating lie from truth
6 Why this faked facial expression looks so unnatural
7 Technical equipment far from enough
8 The role of evaluating emotional states
9 Examples of wildlife which cheat in order to avoid dying out