A In 1977, Winn argued in The Plug in Drug that television has properties of addiction. Researchers have been intrigued of this idea, but few have tried to study it systematically. Anecdotal accounts and speculati9n comprise most of the research on television addiction. Furthermore, similar to the alcohol and drug abuse literature, a conceptual haze between the concepts of heavy exposure, reliance, dependence, and addiction to television remains problematic. A clear distinction needs to be made between these concepts to determine the difference between normal and problem viewing.
B Foss and Alexander had researched on objects that contain both self-defined heavy viewers (6 hours per day) and nonviewers. They found that many nonviewers called television a drug or a religion and believed that it caused less interaction with friends and family, less time spent doing more productive or healthier things, and less critical thought. Nonviewers reported that television was simply too seductive to have around. Heavy viewers saw addiction to television as a likely outcome, but not for themselves. For them, it was simply a means for escape and relaxation. People who avoid television tend to cite its addictive properties as the reason. Nonviewers in Australia wouldn't watch because they couldn’t "resist its power.'’They regarded it as a depressant drug that dulls the senses. Mander collected around 2,000 anecdotal responses to television 'that made it sound like“a machine that invades, controls and deadens the people who view it.”· Common statements resulted, such as “I feel hypnotised” and “I just can’t keep my, eyes off it. In talking about their television behaviour, people compared themselves to· mesmerised, drugged-out，and spaced out vegetables. Similarly，Singer asked,”why do we turn the set on almost automatically on awakening in the morning or on returning home from school or work?’ Singer, though, said that addition to television is an extreme position, and speculated that television’s magnetism can be explained by a human “orienting reflex”. That is. We are programmed to respond to new or unexpected stimuli, and because novel and sudden images are key features of television, it draws our attention. Singer said that the addictive power of television is probably to minimise problems by putting other thoughts in your mind.
C In an empirical search for this seemingly pervasive psychological phenomenon, Smith used popular literature to generate items for a measure of television addiction. Although，the resultant· scale was not directly based on the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), it included some of the concepts such as loss of control, time spent using, withdrawal, attempts to quit, and guilt. Her study via mail of 491 adults living in some mountain areas found that very few of the participants identified with the concepts in her measure; only 11 our of 491 respondents admitted television addiction, although 64% of the respondents reported that television was addictive. Smith found a strong relationship between the amount of time spent viewing and the tendency to call oneself an addict.
Noting that there have been almost no empirical studies of television addiction, Mcllwraith, Jacobvitz，Kubey, and Alexander cited an earlier version of the DSM-IV o discuss a possible relationship to television viewing. Using Smith’s measure they found that only 17 out of 136 college students were self-designated addicts. They reported twice as much television viewing as non-addicts, more mind wandering, distractibility, boredom, and unfocused daydreaming, and tended to score higher on scales measuring introversion and neuroticism. They also reported significantly more dysphoric mood watching, and watching to fill time.
E Also. t1sing Smith's measure of television addiction, Anderson, Collins, Schmitt, and Jacobvitz found that, for women, stressful life events·· predicted television addictionlike behaviour and guilt about television watching. They argued that women used television in a way that was “analogous to alcohol，”and wondered if television watching served to delay more healthy and appropriate coping strategies. Also using Smith's measure Mcilwraith found only 10% of the 237 participants· sampled while visiting a museum identified themselves as television addicts. Mcilwraith found . that those who, admitted addiction to television watched significantly more hours of television than others, · and watched more to escape unpleasant moods anti to fill time. Mclhvtaitl1's sample echoed Smith’s, who found that participants most often responded never on all the items about television addiction.
F According to Smith, the phenomenon of television addiction is unsubstantiated in empirical research, but is robust in anecdotal evidence. For example, like other addictions， television watching is thought to contribute to conflict and breakdowns in family relationships. One woman explained how her husband’s addiction to television contributed to their separation： “There was absolutely no way of spending an evening alone with my husband without television. He was most resentful if 1 stuck out for my choice of program and most resentful.if I turn it off while he slept in front of it.” There are worse stories. Fowles related tragic newspaper accounts due to quarrels about television： “Charles Green of East Palo Alto, California stabbed his sister to death with a hunting knife after she took out the electrical fuses so he would stop viewing. In Latwell, Louisiana John Gallien shot his sister-in-law because she kept turning down the volume. ”Studies of television deprivation also indicate profound and real withdrawal-like symptoms，supporting the notion of addiction.
G A handful of studies have attempted to study other types of media addiction directly using APA criteria. For example, Fisher found that children could be classified as addicted to video games. The children’s pathological video game playing was based on model criteria such as frequency and duration of play, supernormal expenditures,borrowing and selling of possessions to play, and self-awareness of a problem. Phillips, Rolls, Rouse, and Griffiths studied the video game habits of 868 children, aged 11 to 16 .They found that 50 could be classified as addicts. The addicted children played nearly every day, for longer time periods than intended, often to the neglect of homework. They reported feeling better after play, and using play to avoid other things. Also based on APA criteria, a case study in the United Kingdom effectively diagnosed a young man as addicted to pinball machines. Consistent with third-person effect literature, the young man thought that he played too much, but that he was not "addicted."
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs A-G from the list of headings below.
write appropriate numbers (i-xi) in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
I Televisions and family battles
II Comparisons made among heavy viewers and nonviewers
III Psychological expertise helps to interpret television addiction
IV Television addiction being proved by tragedies
V Resist the power of television addiction
VI Children got no affections
VII Similarities of using televisions and alcohols
VIII Findings from the campus
IX Conception of television addition being proposed
X Empirical search for DSM-IV
XI Applying methods from television addiction studies to other platforms