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雅思阅读真题+题目+答案:Maps and Atlas

来源:原创作品 | 2019-11-2210

雅思阅读真题+题目+答案:MapsandAtlasNooneknowswhenthefirstmapwasmade.Perhapsitwassomepaleolithichunterscratchinglinesintheearthtodirecthiscomradestowherehehadseenprey.Theoldestsurv...

雅思阅读真题+题目+答案:Maps and Atlas

No one knows when the first map was made. Perhaps it was some paleolithic hunter scratching lines in the earth to direct his comrades to where he had seen prey.The oldest surviving physical object which could be called a map is a wall painting of a town plan at the archeological site in Anatolia, Turkey. Radiocarbon examination dates it from about 6200 B.C. Maps are known from classical times ……-a clay tablet with a city plan from Mesopotamia; a world map on bronze supposedly shown to the King of Sparta circa 500 B.C.; an Egyptian papyrus showing a gold mine.

Perhaps the most celebrated of ancient maps is the Peutinger Table which survives at the Royal Library of Vienna. It is a 12th or 13th century manuscript copy of a road map of the Roman Empire which was probably created in the 5th century A.D. During the Middle Ages most maps were either of small local areas or were cosmic maps of the world. The former were for land ownership purposes, and the latter were cosmological­providing inspiration about the place of this world in relation to the next. It is possible the world maps could also have been helpful to travelers, though only the largest contained enough detail to be of much use.

All the above maps were manuscript L i.e., made by hand. In the 15th century European map-making was influenced by several events. One was the invention of movable type by Gutenberg circa 1555, which led to the extensive production of printed books. Some books, such as geographies needed maps, creating a demand for printed maps. Another great event was the rediscovery of Ptolemy in the West. Ptolemy ( circa 150 A.D.) was a scholar of Alexandria, Egypt whose Geographia explained his system of coordinates for locating places on the map. It included coordinates for several thousand places.丁his great work was lost to the West for over a thousand years, but was retained in the East. As the Byzatine Empire came under pressure from the Turks,refugees fled west taking their possessions with them, including texts of the Geographia.

Then came a third great event, Columbus’ discovery of the New World. The discovery effectively stopped creation of printed world maps for more than decade as the information was absorded and interpreted. By the early 1500's mapmakers were getting lots of new data to put on their maps; not just of the New World, but also of Africa and Asia. Some of the best early mapmakers were in Italy. The Italian cities “states were leading centres of trade and had great interest in anything that might affect their commerce. This was part of a pattern which was repeated over the centuries-leadership in mapmaking went long with commercial and military prominence. Maps were essential tools of both commerce and war.

As the century went on trade shifted to western Europe and the major ports of the Low Countries became important commercial centres, as well as places of血ap production. It was there that on May 20, 1570 Abraham Orbis produced what is generally regarded as the first modem atlas. It was titled Theatrum Orbis Terrarum and contained 53 maps, all uniform in size and style. The maps were entirely modem,as Ortelius had sought the best available maps and then redesigned them to a standard format to fit his atlas. The Theatrum was 船 immediate success, going through four printings in its first year. It continued through more than 40 editions over the next generation.

In 1572 Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg published the Civitates Orbis Terrarum, the first atlas of city views and plans. It too became a best seller of its time. A third important work soon emerged. Lucas Jansz Waghenaer created the Speighel der Zeevaerdt, the first atlas of sea charts. The charts were engraved by the van Deutecom brothers and are as artistic as they are functional.

At the same time Gerard Mercator was busily creating maps. He and Ortelius were friends as well as colleagues. Mercator was of a more scholarly temperament and his productions came for也more slowly. Before creating a modem atlas he wanted to produce a definitive edition of Ptolemy, which was published in 1578. He was the first to use the term “atlas” as the name of a book of maps. Sections of his modem atlas began to appear in the 1580, and the complete work was issued by his heirs in 1595, the year after his death.

In 1662 an extraordinary atlas was published. It w在s Joan Blaeu 's Grand Atlas or Atlas Major with approximately 600 beautifully-engraved maps on thick paper in ten to twelve volumes depending on the edition. Lavish versions were issued with sumptuous bindings and brilliant colouring; sometimes they were purchased by the Dutch Republic as gifts for royalty and other notable personages. The Grand Atlas was to normal atlases as a Rolls Royce is to an ordinary sedan.

The 17th and 18th- century maps were printed by copper engraving, a process introduced in Europe in the 16th century. Various specialists associated with the print shop worked to produce a map: the mapmaker, the engraver, the printer, the papermaker, the colourist. Since map dealers and printers were usually licensed separately, a dealer would sell the maps from his own shop, either separately or bound together in an atlas. Maps and .atlases were also sold at publishers’ book and map fairs across Europe. This basic process of map and atlas production and distribution continues to this day around the world, although computer graphics have replaced copper engraving.

雅思阅读真题题目:

Question 1-7

Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs A-G from the list of headings below.

Write appropriate numbers (i-xi) in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

Question 1-8

Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs A-H from the list of headings below.

Write appropriate numbers (i-xi) in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

List of Headings

I The effects of the great events on mapmaking

II Superior version with high quality and price

III From copper to computers

IV From plaster to paper

V The modem atlas was born

Vi A guide for Roman travellers

Vii Columbus’ discovery of the New World

Viii Driven by trade and military

Ix Atlas of cities and seas

X The best-seller in 1572

Xi The first use of the term

1 Paragraph A

2 Paragraph B

3 Paragraph C

4 Paragraph D

5 Paragraph E

6 Paragraph F

7 Paragraph G

8 Paragraph H


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