雅思阅读真题+题目+答案：Rapid, Urban and Flexible
The car is so popular that it is about to strangle itself in success. On the other and, traditional bus/train transit systems are so unattractive that they will never be able to become a real alternative to the car in a society where there is freedom of choice. Something new has to be invented. Something which is as flexible as the car, but as efficient as the train regarding capacity and environmental impact. A Dual Mode system is able to offer this new combination.
Modern cities are very low in density. People prefer to have space around them. It is good for the children and you have more privacy than in high-rise buildings. The consequence is that travel pattems are very diffuse both in time and in space. People are traveling from everywhere to everywhere and at the time they choose to travel. This makes it extremely difficult to transport people with traditional transit. Normally people are not willing to walk more than 400m to a station, so a Light Rail system will only appeal to a minor part of the travelers. A Dual Mode system like RUF (Rapid, Urban and flexible) is able to cover widespread cities. For that reason it is a better alternative to the car than traditional transit.
The vehicles drive manually a few kilometres on ordinary roads in order to get to the rail system. The driver programs the RUF to know its destination and this information is transferred to the system when the vehicle gets near to the monorail. The system guides the vehicle to enter the guide way without waiting and at 30 km/h. From there on the driver can relax until he gets close to his destination where he takes over control again and drives manually to his destination. The main part of the trip is automated and the system knows when to turn right or left and when to get off. The automated part is very safe and energy efficient. The travel speed is typically 120 km/h on average. Travel times are short and predictable.
The RUF system will be implemented as a network of guide ways. A typical mesh size will be 5 km x 5 km, so a typical commuter will use 3 sections of the rail. At every junction, the speed is reduced to 30 km/h. The top speed between junctions can reach 200 km/h, but typically it will be 150 km/h when the mesh size is 5 km x 5 km. The reason for this speed reduction during switching is partly that the safety has to be extremely high in an automated system, partly that if the speed was any higher, and the radius of curvature would be much higher (it goes with the square of the speed). In an existing city it will not be possible to find room for soft curves. At 30 km/h the comfort criteria will allow for a 26 m radius of curvature.
The vehicles in the RUF system are coupled to form trains when they use the guide way The length of the train depends on the demand. During night everybody will be allowed to travel alone. During rush hour 1 RUF per second can enter the guide way system. This means that a train of 10 RUFs can be created in approximately 10 seconds. This train creation can be made before merging onto the main rail. This way a very high capacity can be obtained. Capacity is more than just a number. The quality of capacity depends on the frequency. It is much better to have a capacity of 20,000 passengers per hour per direction with many small units than the same capacity obtained by squeezing people into large trains.
The RUF system can reduce the energy consumption from individual traffic.了he main factor is the reduction of air resistance due to close coupling of vehicles. The energy consumption per RUF can be reduced to less than 1 /3 at 100 km/h. Since RUF is an electric system, renewable sources can be used without problems. A combination of windmills and a RUF rail could be used over water. Solar cells can also也e integrated into the system and ensure completely sustainable transportation.
The RUF system uses the space very efficiently. Only 2.5 m x 2.5 m is required for the rail This means that it will often be possible to place a guide way along existing traffic corridors. A tunnel solution can be created that one tube can contain 3 rails.丁his means that the cost will be much lower than that of a train system requiring 2 tubes.了he third rail can be used to supply more capacity for rush hour traffic in one direction or to help in an emergency. The vehicles in a RUF system “rides” very safely oη top of a triangular monorail. This means that derailments are impossible and that the users will feel safe because it is easy to understand that when the rail is actually inside the vehicle it is absolutely stable. The special rail brake ensures that braking power is always available even during bad weather. The brake can squeeze as hard against the rail as required in order to bring the vehicle to a safe stop. If a vehicle has to be evacuated, a walkway between the two rails can be used.
Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) is a beautiful system where small vehicles drive oη demand on a guide way system. It is much better than traditional transit. Unfortunately it has never been fully implemented. Part of the reason is that it is not a Dual Mode system. It cannot leave the guide way. RUF can work as a PRT system where it is relevant (in dense pa此s of a town), but is also a Dual Mode system. In this respect it can be seen as a PRT+ system. It will be impossible to start the RUF system as a system with privately owned RUFs from the start. Nobody would invest in a new infrastructure without knowing if anybody would like to buy the vehicles for it. For that reason，it is the intention to start it as a Public Transport system. Since the guide way is very slender and relatively inexpensive, such a system will be less costly than traditional public transport. It would also be a success corn pa red to traditional transit because of the very high level of service offered in RUF.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage? In boxes l一10 on your answer sheet, write TRUE FALSE NOT GIVEN
if the statement agrees with the information.
If the statement contradicts the information.
If there is no information on this.
1 Traditional transit systems are unappealing and cannot displace cars because they are not flexible.
2 Low density of cities has caused uncertainty of people’s travel pattern.
3 A Dual Mode system like RUF is free of charge.
4 The main part of the trip needs drivers to control the vehicle in the RUF system.
5 Low speed during switching can reduce the radius of curvature.
6 Many individual RUFs achieve higher quality than large trains with the same capacity.
7 Over-water RUF rail uses a combination of windmills and solar cells.
8 During bad weather, RUF systems must be shut down.
9 PRT is an improved version of RUF system.
10 It is the government who should invest in RUF system.