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gre阅读练习之如何把握作者的态度

来源:原创作品 | 2019-08-07216

《官方指南》对GRE阅读考查能力的描述其中一项为identifyingtheauthor'sperspectives1,即考查考生是否具备把握作者态度的能力。在本小节中智思教育将介绍一些GRE文章中常见的作者态度和作者态度...

《官方指南》对GRE阅读考查能力的描述其中一项为identifying the author's perspectives1 , 即考查考生是否具备把握作者态度的能力。在本小节中智思教育将介绍一些GRE文章中常见的作者态度和作者态度的表示手法。

GRE阅读中,作者态度通常包含以下几种:

(1)正评价

即作者认为某一个观点正确、有用或者有说服力等等。例如: That such deep events do occur has been accepted only since 1927, when the seismologist kiyoo Wadati convincingly demonstrated their existence…


(2) 负评价

即作者认为某个观点不正确、缺乏说服力、前后自相矛盾等等。例如: Although much has been accomplished for the modem period, premodem cultures have proved more difficult: sources are restricted in number, fragmentary, difficult to interpret, and often contradictory.

以上的正负评价未免有些过于单一和极端,而GRE阅读文章较倾向于表达温和的态度。因此,文中多出现“混合评价”,即既有正评价也有负评价,具体包括大负小正、大正小负以及纯粹的混合评价三种。 以下分述之:

1)大正小负,即作者基本肯定了某个观点或研究,但是略微提及了该观点或者研究的缺点。例如:

Early investigators correctly reasoned that the structural similarity to the serotonin molecule might imply that LSD's effects are brought about by an action on the neurotransrnission of serotonin in the brain although the level of technical expertise in the field of brain research was in such a limited way that this hypothesis had to be tested on peripheral tissue (tissue outside the brain).

l. perspective: a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something; a point of view此处可理解为作者的态度和看问题的角度。

在该句中correctly是一个正评价,而同时作者也用 although 引导了一个让步句,指出早期大脑研究的局限性(limited way)。

再如:

Arrom does not discuss whether women's improved status counteracted the effects on women of instability in the Mexican economy during the nineteenth century. However, this is not so much a weakness in her work as it is the inevitable result of scholars'neglect of this period. Indeed, such gaps in Mexican history are precisely what make Arrom's pioneering study an important addition to Latin American women's history.

从该句中也可以看出作者认为Arrom的研究具有先锋色彩,并且很重要,尽管Arrom没有谈及某方面的内容。


2) 大负小正,即作者基本否定了某个观点或研究,但是略微提及该观点或研究的优点。例如:

Although these observations are ture,Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued.

在本句中作者通过让步状语从句肯定Pessen的某些观察是正确的,但在主句中指出他高估了其重要性,强调了负评价。

再如:... we might note in passing that Thompson, while rightly restoring laboring people to the stage

of eighteenth-century English history, has probably exaggerated the opposition of these people to the inroads…

句中rightly表明了作者对Thompson的正评价,而exaggerated则显示了作者的负评价。因此, 本句整体评价为大负小正。


3)纯粹的混合评价,即作者在提出正评价的同时也提出了负评价,但是并未明显表明以哪种评价为主。例如:

He has successfully presented some convincing evidence to At the same time, he still overestimates its significance.

在这句话中,由 at the same time可以看出作者没有对正评价(successfully presented)或负评 价(overestimates its significance)的偏向,属于纯粹的混合评价。


以上便是GRE阅读文章中经常出现的几种作者态度和评价。在GRE阅读中,作者的态度评价分为两方面内容:文章中提出态度、评价的方式以及选项中体现此种评价的方式。

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