智思教育

GRE阅读技巧之逻辑训练简图法

来源:原创作品 | 2019-08-0726

我们一直强调,GRE阅读文章的逻辑性极强,于是准确地把握文章的逻辑脉络便显得十分关键。智思GRE培训名师团给大家介绍一种训练此种能力的利器,简单地说——逻辑简图就是将GRE阅读文章中的一些

我们一直强调,GRE阅读文章的逻辑性极强,于是准确地把握文章的逻辑脉络便显得十分关键。智思GRE培训名师团给大家介绍一种训练此种能力的利器,简单地说——逻辑简图就是将GRE阅读文章中的一些逻辑功能词(linking devices)按顺序排列以勾勒文章逻辑结构的简图。它最大限度地忽略了文章细节而只着重于文章主干。

具体请看小编一一举例说明:

Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of information for students. My research suggests, however, that textbooks that address the place of Native Americans within the history of the United States distort history to suit a particular cultural value system. In some textbooks, for example, settlers are pictured as more humane, complex, skillful, and wise than Native American. In essence, textbooks stereotype and deprecate the numerous Native American cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the European conquest of the New World denotes the superiority of European cultures. Although textbooks evaluate Native American architecture, political systems, and homem如ng, I contend that they do it from an ethnocentric, European perspective without recognizing that other perspectives are possible.

One argument against my contention asserts that, by nature, textbooks are culturally biased and that I am simply underestimating children's ability to see through these biases. Some researchers even claim that by the time students are in high school, they know they cannot take textbooks literally. Yet substantial evidence exists to the contrary. Two researchers, for example, have conducted studies that suggest that children's attitudes about particular culture are strongly influenced by the textbooks used in schools. Given this, an ongoing, careful review of how school textbooks depict Native American is certainly warranted.

该篇文章的逻辑简图如下:

例二:

During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic development strategy of local governments in the United States was to attract manufacturing industries. Unfortunately, this strategy was usually implemented at another community's expense: many manufacturing facilities were lured away from their moorings elsewhere through tax incentives and slick promotional efforts. Through the transfer of jobs and related revenues that resulted from this practice, one town's triumph could become another town's tragedy.

In the 1980's the strategy shifted from this zero-sum game to one called "high-technology development," in which local governments competed to attract newly formed high-technology manufacturing frrms. Although this approach was preferable to victimizing other geographical areas by taking their jobs, it also had its shortcomings: high-tech manufacturing frrms employ only a specially trained fraction of the manufacturing workforce, and there simply are not enough high-tech frims to satisfy all geographic areas.

Recently, local governments have increasingly come to recognize the advantages of yet a third strategy: the promotion of homegrown small businesses. Small indigenous businesses are created by a nearly ubiquitous resource, local entrepreneurs. With roots in their communities, these individuals are less likely to be enticed away by incentives offered by another community. Indigenous industry and talent are kept at home, creating an environment that both provides jobs and fosters further entrepreneurship.

该篇文章的逻辑简图如下:


可见,逻辑简图是对文章逻辑结构的最佳概括。通过逻辑简图,考生可以培养以下能力:

• 把握文章主干的能力

逻辑简图只记录文章主干而忽略文章中的细节,所以它可以“强迫“考生在把握文章时先着重文章 主千,再关注细节,逐渐培养符合GRE阅读的思维方式。

• 确认文章目的的能力

依据主干信息可以得出作者的主要观点及其写作目的。以例文1为例,逻辑简图清晰地说明了作 者的主要观点,即认为教科书歪曲了历史,而作者写作此文的目的也正是要反对学校关于教科 书的观点。

• 辨别作者态度的能力

逻辑简图必然记录作者的态度,而识别文章作者的态度是ETS在新GRE阅读的能力考查范围中明 确提到的。

• 定位能力

由于逻辑简图注重文章的主干,因此做题时可以根据题目要求在文中快速定位。仍以例文1为例, 如有题目问及对作者观点的反对意见即可定位千第二段第一句;而问及欧洲的题目则可定位于 第一段。


对于GRE阅读薄弱的同学,我们智思教育也有GRE阅读培训班哦,想快速提升GRE阅读成绩,请咨询我们!

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