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新GRE阅读真题36套+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise9

来源:智思整理 | 2019-07-3028

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Jean Wagner‘s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as secular, frame of reference. The appropriateness of such an approach may seem self-evident for a tradition commencing with spirituals and owing its early forms, rhythms, vocabulary, and evangelical fervor to Wesleyan hymnals. But before Wagner a secular outlook that analyzed Black poetry solely within the context of political and social protest was dominant in the field.


It is Wagner who first demonstrated the essential fusion of racial and religious feeling in Afro-American poetry. The two, he argued, form a symbiotic union in which religious feelings are often applied to racial issues and racial problems are often projected onto a metaphysical plane. Wagner found this most eloquently illustrated in the Black spiritual, where the desire for freedom in this world and the hope for salvation in the next are inextricably intertwined.(159 words)

翻译:

W对于非裔美国诗歌的最经久不衰的贡献在于他认为是个应该放在宗教和世俗的参考框架下进行分析。对于美国黑人诗歌起源于圣歌并且从W圣歌中借鉴了早期的形式、韵律、语言和福音狂热的传统来说,这一方法的正确性是不言自明的。但是在W之前,认为应将对黑人诗歌的置于在政治和社会不满的背景下来分析的世俗观点占据了这一研究领域的主导地位。

正式W第一个证明了美国黑人是个中种族和宗教情感的结合。他认为,二者形成了共生结合体,其中宗教情感经常适用于种族问题,而种族问题也常常置于形而上学的宗教体系中。W发现这一观点在黑人圣歌中得到最能有力证明,其中对现世自由的渴望和对后世的自我救赎希望不可分割地相互交织在一起。


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) contrast the theories of Jean Wagner with those of other contemporary critics

(B) document the influence of Jean Wagner on the development of Afro-American poetry

(C) explain the relevance of Jean Wagner‘s work to the study of Afro-American religion

(D) indicate the importance of Jean Wagner‘s analysis of Afro-American poetry

(E) present the contributions of Jean Wagner to the study of Black spirituals

正确答案:D

答案解析:关键词J 人和Afro-American Poetry,保留B、D,本文没讲对诗歌的影响,选D。


2. All of the following aspects of Afro-American poetry are referred to in the passage as having been influenced by Wesleyan hymnals EXCEPT

(A) subject matter

(B) word choice

(C) rhythm

(D) structure

(E) tone

正确答案:A

答案解析:定位在L6―its early forms, rhythms, vocabulary, and evangelical fervor‖ 一一对应选项,最后一个是难点,像福音传教般狂热的。


3. It can be inferred from the passage that, before Wagner, most students of Afro-American poetry did which of the following?

(A) Contributed appreciably to the transfer of political protest from Afro-American poetry to direct political action.

(B) Ignored at least some of the historical roots of Afro-American poetry.

(C) Analyzed fully the aspects of social protest to be found in such traditional forms of Afro-American poetry as the Black spiritual.

(D) Regarded as unimportant the development of fervent emotionalism in a portion of Afro-American poetry.

(E) Concentrated on the complex relations between the technical elements in Afro-American poetry and its political content.

正确答案:B

答案解析:Ignore 对应文中L9 的solely,答案B,虽然历史文中没有提到,正是如此,选项中有一个at least。


In the early 1950‘s, historians who studied preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began,for the first time in large numbers, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite: the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates who had hitherto usually filled history books. One difficulty, however, was that few of the remaining 97 percent recorded their thoughts or had them chronicled by contemporaries. Faced with this situation, many historians based their investigations on the only records that seemed to exist: birth, marriage, and death records. As a result, much of the early work on the nonelite was aridly statistical in nature; reducing the vast majority of the population to a set of numbers was hardly more enlightening than ignoring them altogether. Historians still did not know what these people thought or felt.


One way out of this dilemma was to turn to the records of legal courts, for here the voices of the nonelite can most often be heard, as witnesses, plaintiffs, and defendants. These documents have acted as ―a point of entry into the mental world of the poor.‖ Historians such as Le Roy Ladurie have used the documents to extract case histories, which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups (these attitudes include, but are not confined to, attitudes toward crime and the law) and have revealed how the authorities administered justice. It has been societies that have had a developed police system and practiced Roman law, with its written depositions, whose court records have yielded the most data to historians. In Anglo-Saxon countries hardly any of these benefits obtain, but it has still been possible to glean information from the study of legal documents.


The extraction of case histories is not, however, the only use to which court records may be put. Historians who study preindustrial Europe have used the records to establish a series of categories of crime and to quantify indictments that were issued over a given number of years. This use of the records does yield some information about the nonelite, but this information gives us little insight into the mental lives of the nonelite. We also know that the number of indictments in preindustrial Europe bears little relation to the number of actual criminal acts, and we strongly suspect that the relationship has varied widely over time. In addition, aggregate population estimates are very shaky, which makes it difficult for historians to compare rates of crime per thousand in one decade of the preindustrial period with rates in another decade. Given these inadequacies, it is clear why the case history use of court records is to be preferred.(473 words)

翻译:

在20世纪50年代,研究工业革命前欧洲史(这里是指大约从1300-1800年之间的欧洲)的历史学家们第一次开始大量调查工业革命前欧洲大多数人口,而不是只在人口总数2%-3%的充斥历史书籍的政治和社会精英:国王、将军、法官、贵族、牧师和当地权贵。然而,一个困难是占人口97%的那些人很少记录他们的思想,同时代的编年史中也少有提及。面对这种情况,许多历史学家只是将他们的研究建立在似乎存在的记载上:出生、婚姻以及死亡记录。结果,大量有关非社会精英的作品在数据统计属性上非常匮乏;将绝大多数人口简单归为一串数字几乎不比完全忽视他们有启发意义。历史学家还是不知道这些人所思所想。

解决这一问题的一个方法是利用法庭记录,在那些材料中非精英的声音能非常经常通过证人、原告、被告听到。这些资料成为“进入这些穷人心理的敲门砖”。正如历史学家L利用这些资料研究个案史,这些个案史表明不同社会群体的不同态度(包括但不限于针对犯罪和法律的态度),同时这些个案史还显示了政府是如何执行法律的。在建立了警察系统并实行罗马法的社会,积累的文字卷宗的法庭记录产生的数据正式历史学家所需要的。在安格鲁萨克逊国家几乎无法获得这些,但是研究法律资料还是会有所收获。

然而,个案提取并不是法庭资料的唯一用途。研究工业革命前欧洲史历史学家已经用这些资料建立了一系列犯罪分类,量化了一些特点年份的起诉。这一做法确实提供了一些非精英的信息,但是这些信息无法让我们了解他们的精神生活。我们还知道工业革命前欧洲社会起诉的数量和实际犯罪数量并无关系,不仅如此我们还怀疑二者关系不同时期波动很大。此外,总的人口数量也难于估量,导致历史学家们很难比较工业革命前一个年代每千人犯罪率和另一个年代每千人犯罪率。基于这些不足,为什么更倾向于用法庭资料进行个案历史就显而易见了。


4. The author suggests that, before the early 1950‘s,most historians who studied preindustrial Europe did which of the following?

(A) Failed to make distinctions among members of the preindustrial European political and social elite.

(B) Used investigatory methods that were almost exclusively statistical in nature.

(C) Inaccurately estimated the influence of the preindustrial European political and social elite.

(D) Confined their work to a narrow range of the preindustrial European population.

(E) Tended to rely heavily on birth, marriage, and death records.

正确答案:D

答案解析:文章第一句话:“In the early 1950‗s, historians who studied preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers(取反), to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent(取同) “ 答案:D:“a narrow range of the preindustrial European population“


5. According to the passage, the case histories extracted by historians have

(A) scarcely illuminated the attitudes of the political and social elite

(B) indicated the manner in which those in power apportioned justice

(C) focused almost entirely on the thoughts and feelings of different social groups toward crime and the law

(D) been considered the first kind of historical writing that utilized the records of legal courts

(E) been based for the most part on the trial testimony of police and other legal authorities

正确答案:B

答案解析:当初定位错误,应该在L26,选出B


6. It can be inferred from the passage that much of the early work by historians on the European nonelite of the preindustrial period might have been more illuminating if these historians had

(A) used different methods of statistical analysis to investigate the nonelite

(B) been more successful in identifying the attitudes of civil authorities, especially those who administered justice, toward the nonelite

(C) been able to draw on more accounts, written by contemporaries of the nonelite, that described what this nonelite thought

(D) relied more heavily on the personal records left by members of the European political and social elite who lived during the period in question

(E) been more willing to base their research on the birth, marriage, and death records of the nonelite

正确答案:C

答案解析:定位在L43:“ but this information gives us little insight into the mental lives of the nonelites“;直接选出C 选项。


7. It can be inferred from the passage that a historian who wished to compare crime rates per thousand in a European city in one decade of the fifteenth century with crime rates in another decade of that century would probably be most aided by better information about which of the following?

(A) The causes of unrest in the city during the two decades

(B) The aggregate number of indictments in the city nearest to the city under investigation during the two decades

(C) The number of people who lived in the city during each of the decades under investigation

(D) The mental attitudes of criminals in the city,including their feelings about authority, during each of the decades under investigation

(E) The possibilities for a member of the city‘s nonelite to become a member of the political and social elite during the two decades

正确答案:C

答案解析:定位在L49:“aggregate population estimates are very shaky “(shaky:不可靠的)直接得出C选项,B很接近,但是却说的是nearest to the city.


Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are necessary for many plants to thrive, but they have escaped widespread investigation until recently for two reasons. First, the symbiotic association is so well-balanced that the roots of host plants show no damage even when densely infected. Second, the fungi cannot as yet be cultivated in the absence of a living root. Despite these difficulties, there has been important new work that suggests that this symbiotic association can be harnessed to achieve more economical use of costly superphosphate fertilizer and to permit better exploitation of cheaper, less soluble rock phosphate. Mycorrhizal benefits are not limited to improved phosphate uptake in host plants. In legumes,Mycorrhizal inoculation has increased nitrogen fixation beyond levels achieved by adding phosphate fertilizer alone. Certain symbiotic associations also increase the host plant‘s resistance to harmful root fungi.

翻译:

M真菌相比其他真菌,可以影响更多植物,对很多植物茁壮成长很必要,但是,直到最近才对其进行广泛研究主要有两个原因:第一是其和宿主植物的共生关系保持非常均衡,即使宿主植物被严重感染也不显示症状;第二,这种真菌不能在缺乏活体根系的条件下培养。尽管有这些困难,一部重要新著作表明,利用这种共生关系可以更经济利用昂贵的超级磷肥,,还可以更好利用更便宜但不宜溶解的岩石中的磷。M的用途不仅局限于改善宿主植物的磷肥摄取,在豆类植物中,M还可以有利于固氮,效果好于单独追加磷肥。某种共生关系还可以增加宿主植物抵御其他真菌对其根部的损害。


8. Which of the following most accurately describes the passage?

(A) A description of a replicable experiment

(B) A summary report of new findings

(C) A recommendation for abandoning a difficult area of research

(D) A refutation of an earlier hypothesis

(E) A confirmation of earlier research

正确答案:B

答案解析:主旨题,B 正确,其他的选项均与原文无关。L8:“Despite these difficulties, there has been important new work “


For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

9. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following has NOT been a factor influencing the extent to which research on mycorrhizal fungi has progressed?

□A Lack of a method for identifying mycorrhizal fungi

□B Difficulties surrounding laboratory production of specimens for study

□C Difficulties ensuing from the high cost and scarcity of superphosphate fertilizers

正确答案:AC

答案解析:定位在L4-L5 的first、second,通过second 可以得出B, production 和cultivation同义重复。


It is one of nature‘s great ironies that the availability of nitrogen in the soil frequently sets an upper limit on plant growth even though the plants‘ leaves are bathed in a sea of nitrogen gas. The leguminous plants—among them crop plants such as soybeans, peas, alfalfa, and clover—have solved the nitrogen supply problem by entering into a symbiotic relationship with the bacterial genus Rhizobium.

翻译:

这是大自然的具有讽刺意义的现象:土壤中可获取的氮常对植物生长设定上限(即土壤中氮不够)即使这些植物的叶子沐浴在氮气的海洋。豆类植物,例如黄豆、豌豆、苜蓿以及三叶草,都能通过进入与生物天才R的共生关系解决氮供应问题。


10. Which of the following situations is most closely analogous to the situation described by the author as one of nature‘s great ironies?

(A) That of a farmer whose crops have failed because the normal midseason rains did not materialize and no preparations for irrigation had been made

(B) That of a long-distance runner who loses a marathon race because of a wrong turn that cost him twenty seconds

(C) That of shipwrecked sailors at sea in a lifeboat, with one flask of drinking water to share among them

(D) That of a motorist who runs out of gas a mere five miles from the nearest gas station

(E) That of travelers who want to reach their destination as fast and as cheaply as possible, but find that cost increases as travel speed increases

正确答案:C

答案解析:文章的逻辑是:叶子浸淫在海量般地氮气中,但能为之所用的却很少。(少vs 多的irony)D 选项最接近:海难后救生艇漂浮在水上,能喝的却只有一小瓶水。(少vs 多的irony)


Throughout human history there have been many stringent taboos concerning watching other people eat or eating in the presence of others. There have been attempts to explain these taboos in terms of inappropriate social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily need, or between those already satiated and those who appear to be shamelessly gorging. Undoubtedly such elements exist in the taboos, but there is an additional element with a much more fundamental importance. In prehistoric times, when food was so precious and the on-lookers so hungry, not to offer half of the little food one had was unthinkable, since every glance was a plea for life.(124 words)

翻译:

纵观人类历史,有很多严格禁忌有关看别人吃饭或者在有别人在场的情况下吃饭。人们试图对这些禁忌作出解释,认为是不合适的社会关系,是那些正置身于某一身体需要满足的人与那些并不置身于某一身体需要之满足的人之间的,或者是那些早已酒足饭饱的人与那些正在不知羞耻地狼吞虎咽的人之间的。不可否认,这些因素在这些禁忌中确实存在,但是还有更重要的其他因素。在史前年代,食物是如此珍贵,站在一旁的观者是如此饥饿,如果不提供一半的食物给对方是不可想象的,因为每看一眼都是在求生。


11. If the argument in the passage is valid, taboos against eating in the presence of others who are not also eating would be LEAST likely in a society that

(A) had always had a plentiful supply of food

(B) emphasized the need to share worldly goods

(C) had a nomadic rather than an agricultural way of life

(D) emphasized the value of privacy

(E) discouraged overindulgence

正确答案:A

答案解析:定位L5:“inappropriate social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily need, or between those already satiated and those who appear to be shamelessly gorging. “ 两种关系:一种是吃不饱和吃饱了的;一种是吃饱和吃跑了还无耻贪吃的;如果食物充足,这两种情况发生的可能性就很低。


12. The author‘s hypothesis concerning the origin of taboos against watching other people eat emphasizes the

(A) general palatability of food

(B) religious significance of food

(C) limited availability of food

(D) various sources of food

(E) nutritional value of food

正确答案:C

答案解析:同上的解释,C;并且L13“In prehistoric times,when food was so precious “ 进行了对比,也能感觉到前面在强调食物有限的感觉。


13. Select the sentence in the passage in which the author suggests that past attempts to explain some taboos concerning eating are incomplete.

正确答案:Undoubtedly such elements

答案解析:中间的转折过度句。



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