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新GRE阅读理解真题36套+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise7

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新GRE阅读理解真题36套+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise7Hydrogeologyisasciencedealingwiththeproperties,distribution,andcirculationofwateronthesurfaceoftheland,inthesoilandunderlyingro

新GRE阅读理解真题36套+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise7

Hydrogeology is a science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on the surface of the land, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere. The term ―geohydrology‖ is sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for ―hydrogeology.‖ Geohydrology is concerned with underground water. There are many formations that contain water but are not part of the hydrologic cycle because of geologic changes that have isolated them underground. These systems are properly termed geohydrologic but not hydrogeologic. Only when a system possesses natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it with the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeologic.(107 words)

翻译:

HG是一门研究水在陆地表面、土壤以及岩石和大气中性质、分配和流通的科学。GH有时候会被错误地被当作HG的同义词。GH主要关注的地下水。有很多形态的水并不属于水圈因为地质变化将这些水隔离在地下。这一系统更适合称为GH而不是HG。只用当一个系统具备了自然或是人工界限并将其中的水和水圈中的水联系起来,这样整个系统才更适合称为HG。

 

1. It can be inferred that which of the following is most likely to be the subject of study by a geohydrologist?

(A) Soft, porous rock being worn away by a waterfall

(B) Water depositing minerals on the banks of a gorge through which the water runs

(C) The trapping of water in a sealed underground rock cavern through the action of an earthquake

(D) Water becoming unfit to drink through the release of pollutants into it from a manufacturing plant

(E) The changing course of a river channel as the action of the water wears away the rocks past which the river flows

正确答案:C

答案解析:定位到L6-L10,重点关注一下“isolate”即可选出答案。

 

2. The author refers to ―many formations‖ primarily in order to

(A) clarify a distinction

(B) introduce a subject

(C) draw an analogy

(D) emphasize a similarity

(E) resolve a conflict

正确答案:A

答案解析:对应文章的主旨就是区分两个H 和G 之间概念的区别,A.

 

In the 1750‘s, when salons were firmly established in France, some English women, who called themselves ―Bluestocking,‖ followed the example of the salonnieres (French salon hostesses) and formed their own salons. Most Bluestockings did not wish to mirror the salonnieres; they simply desired to adapt a proven formula to their own purpose—the elevation of women‘s status through moral and intellectual training. Differences in social orientation and background can account perhaps for differences in the nature of French and English salons. The French salon incorporated aristocratic attitudes that exalted courtly pleasure and emphasized artistic accomplish-ments. The English Bluestockings, originating from a more modest background, emphasized learning and work over pleasure. Accustomed to the regimented life of court circles, salonnieres tended toward formality in their salons. The English women, though somewhat puritanical, were more casual in their approach.(139 words)

翻译:

16世纪50年代,当沙龙已经在法国很稳固地建立起来的时候,一些英国妇女,她们自成为“蓝袜”以法国S(法国沙龙女主人)为样板建立了自己的沙龙。大多数蓝袜女们并不希望自己的沙龙是法国S的翻版,他们只是希望使那些已经通过的原则适应她们的目的,即通过道德和智能的训练提高妇女地位。社会方向和社会背景的不同或许是法国和英国沙龙性质上不同的原因。法国沙龙代表了贵族的态度,即提高优雅愉悦,强调艺术成就。而英国蓝袜女们,出身更普通的背景,强调学习和工作而不是愉悦。习惯了宫廷圈子刻板的生活,S的沙龙非常正式,而英国妇女的沙龙,尽管也有些拘谨,但是在方式上更随意些。

 

3. According to the passage, a significant distinction between the salonnieres and Bluestockings was in the way each group regarded which of the following?

(A) The value of acquiring knowledge

(B) The role of pleasure in the activities of the literary salon

(C) The desirability of a complete break with societal traditions

(D) The inclusion of women of different backgrounds in the salons

(E) The attainment of full social and political equality with men

正确答案:B

答案解析:这道题做错了,定位出了问题,最开始定位到了L8“purpose—the elevation of women‗s status through moral and intellectual training”,误选了A。实际上题目问的就是difference,应该从L10 往后看,看到讲法国和英国的时候都出现了pleasure 这个词,可以知道文章就是从这个层面讲他们的不同点的。选B。

 

4. The author refers to differences in social background between salonnieres and Bluestockings in order to do which of the following?

(A) Criticize the view that their choices of activities were significantly influenced by male salon members

(B) Discuss the reasons why literary salons in France were established before those in England

(C) Question the importance of the Bluestockings in shaping public attitudes toward educated women

(D) Refute the argument that the French salons had little influence over the direction the English salons took

(E) Explain the differences in atmosphere and style in their salons

正确答案:E

答案解析:讲区别就是为了解释区别。

 

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

5. Which of the following statements is most compatible with the principles of the salonnieres as described in the passage?

□A Devotion to pleasure and art is justified in itself.

□B Men should be excluded from groups of women‘s rights supporters.

□C Women should aspire to be not only educated but independent as well.

正确答案:A

答案解析:定位L11“The French salon incorporated aristocratic attitudes that exalted courtly pleasure and emphasized artistic accomplishments.”可以得出A 选项。A. 答案;B. 没讲老爷们;C. 没讲老爷们,跟谁独立?文章L5 有一个their own,但是对比的对象是法国那帮老娘们。

 

All of Francoise Duparc‘s surviving paintings blend portraiture and genre. Her subjects appear to be acquaintances whom she has asked to pose; she has captured both their self-consciousness and the spontaneity of their everyday activities, the depiction of which characterizes genre painting. But genre painting, especially when it portrayed members of the humblest classes, was never popular in eighteenth-century France. The Le Nain brothers and Georges de La Tour, who also chose such themes, were largely ignored. Their present high standing is due to a different, more democratic political climate and to different aesthetic values: we no longer require artists to provide ideal images of humanity for our moral edification but rather regard such idealization as a falsification of the truth. Duparc gives no improving message and discreetly refrains from judging her subjects. In brief,her works neither elevate nor instruct. This restraint largely explains her lack of popular success during her lifetime, even if her talent did not go completely unrecog nized by her eighteenth-century French contemporaries.

翻译:FD所有现存的作品混合了肖像画和风俗画。她的主人公都是一些她熟知的人,她让他们摆出姿势;她捕捉到他们日常生活中的内心自我意识和自然状态,这就是风俗画作的典型表现手法。但是风俗画,至少描绘低阶层人的那些风格化,在18世纪的法国从来没有流行过。LN兄弟和G,他们都选择了这样的题材,但是都被忽略掉了。他们现在获得了较高的评价是因为更民主的政治氛围和不用的审美价值有别于当时,即我们不再需要艺术家提供人类完美的形象作为我们道德楷模,我们现在认为这样的完美是对真实的作假。FD从不表达粉饰现实的主题,并小心翼翼地避免对其人物对象作评判。总之,她的作品既没有美化也没有说教。这种限制很大程度上可以解释她在世时并未获得认可,即使她的天分在法国同行中并没有被完全漠视。

 

6. According to the passage, modern viewers are not likely to value which of the following qualities in a painting?

(A) The technical elements of the painting

(B) The spontaneity of the painting

(C) The moral lesson imparted by the painting

(D) The degree to which the painting realistically depicts its subject

(E) The degree to which the artist‘s personality is revealed in the painting

正确答案:C

答案解析: 这道题是有NO.6-3 的一道长阅读改过来的,如果只根据节选的内容个人感觉能只选出A,因为实在没有其他的信息了。而实际答案给的是C,是因为在原文中,一篇现象解释的文章,作者通过整篇文章来解释为什么会有这种违背守恒定律的现象出现,实际上是因为一些其他复杂的技术手段,借入其他的地方的能量,才产生了这两个单位能量,所以不违背能量守恒定律。所以在这里,广告商们不要用那些需要客户们有很深的技术背景,需要耗尽所有的脑细胞才能了解到的事实作为广告词,普通的消费者不具备这些专业知识,但是大家都知道能量守恒定律,知道一个单位的能量不能产生两个单位的能量,反而让大家对你的广告的真实性产生了怀疑。

 

7. If the history of Duparc‘s artistic reputation were to follow that of the Le Nain brothers and Georges de La Tour, present-day assessments of her work would be likely to contain which of the following?

(A) An evaluation that accords high status to her work

(B) Acknowledgement of her technical expertise but dismissal of her subject matter as trivial

(C) Agreement with assessments made in her own time but acknowledgements of the exceptional quality of a few of her paintings

(D) Placement of her among the foremost artists of her century

(E) A reclassification of her work as portraiture rather than genre painting

正确答案:A

答案解析:定位在L12: 我们不在需要艺术家为道德教化提供理想的人性的画卷。答案C。

 

8. Select the sentence in the passage in which the author indicates that aesthetic judgments can be influenced by the political beliefs of those making the judgment.

正确答案:Their present high standing is due to

 

Flatfish, such as the flounder, are among the few vertebrates that lack approximate bilateral symmetry (symmetry in which structures to the left and right of the body‘s midline are mirror images). Most striking among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement: before maturity one eye migrates, so that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head. While in most species with asymmetries virtually all adults share the same asymmetry, members of the starry flounder species can be either left-eyed (both eyes on the left side of head) or right-eyed. In the waters between the United States and Japan, the starry flounder populations vary from about 50 percent left-eyed off the United States West Coast, through about 70 percent left-eyed halfway between the United States and Japan, to nearly 100 percent left-eyed off the Japanese coast.

Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic rang a ―cline‖ and interpret clines as strong indications that the variation is adaptive, a response to environmental differences. For the starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference (between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for, which provokes a perplexing questions: what is the selective advantage in having both eyes on one side rather than on the other?

The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to study internal anatomy, especially the optic nerves, for the answer. In all flatfish the optic nerves cross, so that the right optic nerve is joined to the brain‘s left side and vice versa. This crossing introduces an asymmetry, as one optic nerve must cross above or below the other. G. H. Parker reasoned that if, for example, a flatfish‘s left eye migrated when the right optic nerve was on top, there would be a twisting of nerves, which might be mechanically disadvantageous. For starry flounders, then, the left-eyed variety would be selected against, since in a starry flounder the left optic nerve is uppermost.

The problem with the above explanation is that the Japanese starry flounder population is almost exclusively left-eyed, and natural selection never promotes a purely less advantageous variation. As other explanations proved equally untenable, biologists concluded that there is no important adaptive difference between left- eyedness and right-eyedness, and that the two characteristics are genetically associated with some other adaptively significant characteristic. This situation is one commonly encountered by evolutionary biologists, who must often decide whether a characteristic is adaptive or selectively neutral. As for the left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish, their difference, however striking, appears to be an evolutionary red herring.(456 words)

翻译:

平鱼,如比目鱼,是脊椎动物中少有不具备大体双向对称的物种(双向对称是指身体左右结构按照中线镜像一致)。不对称最明显的是表现就是成年平鱼眼睛的位置:在成年以前,他们一只眼睛位置发生变化,所以成年平鱼的两只眼睛都在头的一侧。尽管这种不对称性大多数都呈现一致性,但是S比目鱼可能是左眼(两只眼睛都在头的左侧)或是右眼不对称。在美国和日本海域之间,S比目鱼这种左右不对称的数量很不一样,其左眼位置不对称的比例从美国西海岸大约50%,到美国和日本中间海域70%,再到日本海域几乎100%。

生物学家把这种跨越一定地理范围的渐变成为cline并认为cline很能表明这种变化是适应性的,即是对不同环境的一种反应。对于S比目鱼,这个说法意味着几何差异(在彼此构成镜像的比目鱼之间)是适应性的,意味着日本海域的左眼不对称是选择性的。这就提出了一个复杂的问题:两只眼睛在一侧比两只眼睛各在一侧,其选择性优势是什么?

比目鱼可以通过翻转很容易改变眼睛不对性促使生物学家研究这些鱼类的内部解剖结构,特别是视觉神经来寻找答案。在所有的平鱼中,视觉神经都是相互交叉的,所以右侧的视觉神经连接着左脑,反之亦然。这种交叉性导致了不对称,因为一个视觉神经必须和另一个相交叉,或是在上方或是在下方。G的推理是,例如,如果一个平鱼的右眼视觉神经在上方,它的左眼位置变化,那么就必然出现神经的扭曲,会导致技术缺陷。对于S比目鱼来说,左眼变化就是选择性的,因为在S比目鱼中左眼视觉神经都是在最上部的。

这一解释的问题在于日本S比目鱼几乎全部是左眼变化的,自然选择从来不仅仅是减少不利的变化。正如其他解释也一样站不住脚,生物学家的结论是关于左眼还是右眼不对称并不存在至关重要的适应性的差异,这两者都从基因上和其他重要适应性特征紧密相连。这种情况对于进化生物学家是经常遇到的,所以他们必须经常判断一个特征是适应性的还是选择性的。然而,对于左眼还是右眼平鱼,它们的差异,无论多么明显,似乎也只是一种生物进化方面转移人们注意力的因素。

 

9. According to the passage, starry flounder differ from most other species of flatfish in that starry flounder

(A) are not basically bilaterally symmetric

(B) do not become asymmetric until adulthood

(C) do not all share the same asymmetry

(D) have both eyes on the same side of the head

(E) tend to cluster in only certain geographic regions

正确答案:C

答案解析:题目“political beliefs”定位文章L11“political climate”。

 

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

10. The author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about left-eyedness and right-eyedness in the starry flounder?

□A They are adaptive variations by the starry flounder to environmental differences.

□B They do not seem to give obvious selective advantages to the starry flounder.

□C They occur in different proportions in different locations.

正确答案:BC

答案解析:定位L5 到第一段结束,很容易误选成D,仔细阅读题干,主语是starry flounder,是文章中不在固定在某一边儿那种鱼,选C。

 

11. According to the passage, a possible disadvantage associated with eye migration in flatfish is that the optic nerves can

(A) adhere to one another

(B) detach from the eyes

(C) cross

(D) stretch

(E) twist

正确答案:E

答案解析:需要纵观全文,实际上对于二三段作者给出的解释,在第四段予以了否定,所以不能单纯依靠之前的定位得出答案。A. 这种适应性在L17-L20 确实提出了,但是这是反面教材,作者在最后一段否定了这种自然选择,自适应的解释。B. 看最后一段即可,否定了自然选择的解释。C. 第一段结尾第二段开头告诉了我们这个信息,这是一个客观事实,不是结论的解释,不需要按照最后的观点进行取反。

 

12. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage as a whole?

(A) A phenomenon is described and an interpretation presented and rejected.

(B) A generalization is made and supporting evidence is supplied and weighed.

(C) A contradiction is noted and a resolution is suggested and then modified.

(D) A series of observations is presented and explained in terms of the dominant theory.

(E) A hypothesis is introduced and corroborated in the light of new evidence.

正确答案:A

答案解析:定位在L37。“there would be a twisting of nerves”。

 

The use of heat pumps has been held back largely by skepticism about advertisers‘ claims that heat pumps can provide as many as two units of thermal energy for each unit of electrical energy used, thus apparently contradicting the principle of energy conservation.

翻译:热泵的使用被大打折扣由于人们会广告宣传的怀疑。这些广告声称热泵可以提供,对于消耗的每个单位的电能来说,热泵可产生两个单位的热能,因此显然与能量守恒定理相悖。

 

13. If the author‘s assessment of the use of heat pumps is correct, which of the following best expresses the lesson that advertisers should learn from this case?

(A) Do not make exaggerated claims about the products you are trying to promote.

(B) Focus your advertising campaign on vague analogies and veiled implications instead of on facts.

(C) Do not use facts in your advertising that will strain the prospective client‘s ability to believe.

(D) Do not assume in your advertising that the prospective clients know even the most elementary scientific principles.

(E) Concentrate your advertising firmly on financially relevant issues such as price discounts and efficiency of operation.

正确答案:C

答案解析: 现象解释型,文中给出自然选择的观点,最后又把这个解释干掉了,选A。

 

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