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新GRE阅读理解真题36套+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 6

来源:智思整理 | 2019-07-2525

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新GRE阅读理解36套真题是一套非常棒的备考阅读的资料,相信这很多同学的硬盘中都存有一份!对于那些GRE小白的同学来说,还没有电子档的你,智思GRE以为你准备GRE阅读理解真题36套及翻译及答案解析及百度网盘的PDF下载,不要错过哦!

 

新GRE阅读理解36套原文+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 6

Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not only human morphology but also human behavior. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints-ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that "come naturally" in archetypal situations in any culture. Our"frailties‖"–emotions and motives such as rage, fear,greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love—may be a very mixed assortment, but they share at least one immediate quality: we are, as we say, "in the grip‖" of them. And thus they give us our sense of constraints.

Unhappily, some of those frailties—our need for ever-increasing security among them—are presently maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail, they, too, are said to be biological in direction,and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes.We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they guide us now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure. (174 words)

翻译:

一些现代人类学家认为,生物进化不仅塑造了人类身体结构,也影响了人类行为。这些人类学家所说的“进化”不是只支配人类行为的细节而是强加的限制——在任何文化的典型背景下都自然而然表露的情感、思维和行为。我们的这些“脆弱”——情感或者动机,例如愤怒、害怕、贪婪、暴饮暴食、高兴、淫欲、爱恋——可能是非常含混的分类,但是他们都至少具备一个特性:就是所谓的“我们受制于这些脆弱”。因此给我们带来要压抑感。

不幸的是,有些“脆弱”,即我们身处其中不断增长的安全需求,目前处于失调状态。但是通过文化的叠加,他们也有生物演化的方向特性,就如我们的阑尾一样与生俱来,自然而言。我们需要深入彻底理解他们适应性的源头,以便更好理解他们多么坏地误导着我们。这样我们或许可以开始抑制这些控制我们的人性脆弱。

 

1. Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy from human morphology for the ―details‖ versus ―constraints‖ distinction made in the passage in relation to human behavior?

(A) The ability of most people to see all the colors of the visible spectrum as against most people‘s inability to name any but the primary colors

(B) The ability of even the least fortunate people to show compassion as against people‘s inability to mask their feelings completely

(C) The ability of some people to dive to great depths as against most people‘s inability to swim long distances

(D) The psychological profile of those people who are able to delay gratification as against people‘s inability to control their lives completely

(E) The greater lung capacity of mountain peoples that helps them live in oxygen-poor air as against people‘s inability to fly without special apparatus

正确答案:E

答案解析:类比题,这道题BT,援引chasedream 上面ShadowInShadow 的解释,说实话看了我也太明白,考试的时候遇到就随他去吧。。。于是这是一个类比题,需要找出与“details vs.constraints”关系相近的一组,并且是在human morphology 方面。解决类比题的方法就是找出关键词和逻辑关系。这个题目来说,就是各种humanmorphology 方面的constraints(身体形态方面的负环境)和human morphology 方面的details(身体形态上的特征)。注意我特别标红了“身体形态上的”这个定语,类比题里面,这些定语绝对是最容易出干扰选项的了。做题时,看到这个定语就应该有所警觉,什么心理上的、行为上的之类之类的特征细节,一律干掉。如果你这么想了,那么恭喜你,就这一个理由,你就可以轻易地干掉A-D,直接扑到正确选项E。做题做到这里,就应该拍拍屁股做下一个题。但毕竟是关乎重大的考试,而且这个考试特别特别贵,总有同学不放心。于是ta会看一看E 选项是怎么说的。"The greater lung capacity of mountain peoplesthat helps them live in oxygen-poor air as against peoples inability to fly without special pparatus"不得不说这样做题是不对的,但是既然有需求,我们就看一看这句话。它说,“生活在山区的人的大的肺活量使得他们能在低氧情况下生存vs. 人不借助工具就没法飞起来”。前者是人体形态上的一个小细节小特征,后者是人体形态方面的一个不足限制,恰好满足题目要求。

 

2. It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the author assumes that

(A) evolution does not favor the emergence of adaptive characteristics over the emergence of maladaptive ones

(B) any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory

(C) maladaptive characteristics, once fixed,make the emergence of other maladaptive characteristics more likely

(D) the designation of a characteristic as being maladaptive must always remain highly tentative

(E) changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change

正确答案:E

答案解析:"Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail,they, too, are said to be biological in direction,and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes."这句话说这些不适应性在各种东西的作用下,和阑尾一样,是生物进化的正常现象。而ABCD 选项都表现出(在某个方面)不正常,与文章相反,干掉。

 

The molecules of carbon dioxide in the Earth‘s atmosphere affect the heat balance of the Earth by acting as a one-way screen. Although these molecules allow radiation at visible wavelengths, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated, to pass through, they absorb some of the longer-wavelength,infrared emissions radiated from the Earth‘s surface,radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space. For the Earth to maintain a constant aver age temperature, such emissions from the planet must balance incoming solar radiation. If there were no car-bon dioxide in the atmosphere, heat would escape from the Earth much more easily. The surface temperature would be so much lower that the oceans might be a solid mass of ice. (120 words)

翻译:

地球大气层中的二氧化碳像一个保护屏影响着地球的热量平衡。虽然可见波长的光线可以通这些二氧化碳分子,而这些可见波的光线是大多数太阳能集中的地方;但是,二氧化碳也吸收了长波的辐射光线,这些光线是动地球表面发出的红外线光线,如果不是二氧化碳吸收,他们就会被传回太空。对于地球而言,要想保持不变的平均温度,从地球发出去的光和来自太阳的光必须相互平衡。如果没有大气层中的二氧化碳,热量将很容易从地球散失掉。地球表面的温度将会非常低,海洋的水可能都会结成固态的冰。

3. According to the passage, the greatest part of the solar energy that reaches the Earth is

(A) concentrated in the infrared spectrum

(B) concentrated at visible wavelengths

(C) absorbed by carbon dioxide molecules

(D) absorbed by atmospheric water vapor

(E) reflected back to space by snow and ice

正确答案:B

答案解析: 定位在L4,得出答案。

 

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

4. According to the passage, atmospheric carbon dioxide performs which of the following functions

□A absorbing radiation at visible wavelengths

□B absorbing outgoing radiation from the Earth

□C helping to retain heat near the Earth‘s surface

正确答案:BC

答案解析:分别看一下:A. L5-L6 说允许pass through;B. L7 看到了absorb 吸收了来自地球表面的辐射;备选;C. L11“If there were no car-bon dioxide in the atmosphere, heat would escape from the Earth much more easily.”得出答案。

 

Initially the Vinaver theory that Malory‘s eight romances, once thought to be fundamentally unified. were in fact eight independent works produced both a sense of relief and an unpleasant shock. Vinaver‘s theory comfortably explained away the apparent contradictions of chronology and made each romance independently satisfying. It was, however, disagreeable to find that what had been thought of as one book was now eight books. Part of this response was the natural reaction to the disturbance of set ideas. Nevertheless, even now, after lengthy consideration of the theory‘s refined but legitimate observations, one cannot avoid the conclusion that the eight romances are only one work. It is not quite a matter of disagreeing with the theory of independence, but of rejecting its implications: that the romances may be taken in any or no particular order, that they have no cumulative effect, and that they are as separate as the works of a modern novelist.(154 words)

翻译:

最初,V理论既产生了一种宽慰感又让人感到令人不愉快的吃惊,V理论认为M 8个浪漫小说实际上是8个独立的作品,而该作品一度被认为根本是一体的。V理论较好的解释了年代方面显而易见的矛盾,使每一个故事都独立发生自成一体。但是,这一理论不受欢迎是因为曾经被认为是一本书的作品现在变成了8本书。这一反应部分是对改变已有理论的一种理所当然的自然反应。但是,即使现在,在对该理论细致但却合理的观察进行了漫长考虑之后,人们就会认为这8个作品是一个作品。这倒不是不同意作品是独立的理论,而是抛弃了它的言下之意,即浪漫作品可以是按照任何顺序或者根本没有特别顺序,他们没有叠加效应,这些作品跟其他现代小说家的作品没什么区别,都是没有什么联系的。

 

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Malory‘s works?

□A There are meaningful links between and among the romances.

□B The subtleties of the romances are obscured when they are taken as one work.

□C Any contradictions in chronology among the romances are less important than their over-all unity.

正确答案:AC

答案解析: 文章的几个转折:a) Initially , V 人的理论(M8r 独立),她为年代上的冲突做了辩解(explain away),使他们的独立性和合理。b) 然而,有些人却发现曾经认为的八本书现在是一本书。这可能是一种受传统固定观念(V 的观点)发生动摇后的自然反应。c) 然而(程度转折),时至今日我们不能否认: 8r 就是一本书(作者的最后观点:统一not 分离)d) 作者进行让步,表达出并没有完全反对V,只是不同意V观点的暗示的一种暧昧的感觉。A. 符合作者最后的观点B. 文章没有出现这种obscure 的感觉,同时,如果B 成立了其实是反驳了作者的观点。C. 作者质疑了V 的观点,引出自己的观点,C 选项正好体现出了作者这种用意。

 

6. The author of the passage concedes which of the following about the Vinaver theory?

(A) It gives a clearer understanding of the unity of Malory‘s romances.

(B) It demonstrates the irrationality of considering Malory‘s romances to be unified.

(C) It establishes acceptable links between Malory‘s romances and modern novels.

(D) It unifies earlier and later theories concerning the chronology of Malory‘s romances.

(E) It makes valid and subtle comments about Malory‘s romances.

正确答案:E

答案解析: 问:作者concede 了V 人的什么?很纠结的题目,其实也不难,既然问了是concede,直接选一个正评价符合文章内容的选项就好了。A. 说反了,V 人觉得是分离的;B. V 人虽然想表达分离的意思,但V 人没有指出统一观点的不合理性C. 没有modern novels,新内容;D. 没有讲earlier and later 的感觉;E. 文章最后做了让步,题干问的就是让步,所以直接选出一个正向感觉的选项即可。

 

7. It can be inferred from the passage that, in evaluating the Vinaver theory, some critics were

(A) frequently misled by the inconsistencies in Malory‘s work

(B) initially biased by previous interpretations of Malory‘s work

(C) conceptually displeased by the general interpretation that Vinaver rejected

(D) generally in agreement with Vinaver‘s comparisons between Malory and modern novelists

(E) originally skeptical about Vinaver‘s early conclusions with respect to modern novels

正确答案:B

答案解析:previous interpretations 对应set ideas,找出第二个转折的地方即可。

 

8. Which of the following most logically completes the argument below?

Each year every employee of SAI Corporation must enroll in one of the two health insurance plans offered by SAI. One plan requires a sizable monetary contribution from employees; the other plan is paid for entirely by SAI. Many SAI employees enroll in the plan requiring employee contributions. This fact does not show that they feel that this plan‘s benefits are superior to those provided by the plan requiring no employee contribution since----.

(A) the plan that requires an employee contribution costs and enrolled employee significantly less per year than do typical health insurance plans offered by corporations other than SAI

(B) only SAI employees who have worked for SAI for at least fifteen years are eligible to enroll in the plan paid for entirely by SAI

(C) the two health insurance plans currently offered by SAI are substantially the same plans SAI has offered for the past ten years

(D) most of the SAI employees enrolled in the plan paid for entirely by SAI are under 50 years old

(E) both plans offered by SAI provide benefits not only for employees of SAI but also for children and spouses of enrolled employees

正确答案:B

答案解析:定位L17,“Consequently, agrarian depressions no longer were local or national in scope, and they struck several nations whose internal frontiers had not vanished or were not about to vanish.”可得出答案。

 

The historian Frederick J. Turner wrote in the 1890‘s that the agrarian discontent that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870 had been precipitated by the closing of the internal frontier--that is, the depletion of available new land needed for further expansion of the American farming system. Actually, however, new lands were taken up for farming in the United States throughout and beyond the nineteenth century. In the 1890‘s, when agrarian discontent had become most acute, 1,100,000 new farms were settled, which was 500,000 more than had been settled during the previous decade. After 1890, under the terms of the Homestead Act and its successors, more new land was taken up for farming than had been taken up for this purpose in the United States up until that time. It is true that a high proportion of the newly farmed land was suitable only for grazing and dry farming, but agricultural practices had become sufficiently advanced to make it possible to increase the profitability of farming by utilizing even these relatively barren lands.

The emphasis of the presumed disappearance of the American frontier obscured the great importance of changes in the conditions and consequences of international trade that occurred during the second half of the nineteenth century. Huge tracts of land were being settled and farmed in Argentina, Australia, Canada, and in the American West, and these areas were joined with one another and with the countries of Europe into an interdependent market system. Consequently, agrarian depressions no longer were local or national in scope, and they struck several nations whose internal frontiers had not vanished or were not about to vanish. Between the early 1870‘s and the 1890‘s, the mounting agrarian discontent in America paralleled the almost uninterrupted decline in the prices of American agricultural products on foreign markets. Those staple-growing farmers in the United States who exhibited the greatest discontent were those who had become most dependent on foreign markets for the sale of their products. Insofar as Americans had been deterred from taking up new land for farming, it was because market conditions had made this period a perilous time in which to do so.(369 words)

翻译:历史学家F 在19世纪90年代时写到:开始于19世纪70年代的农民的不满情绪一直处于稳定发展状态,但由于国内边远地区的关闭而恶化加剧了,边远地区的关闭导致美国农业进一步发展所必须的可用新土地出现匮乏。但实际上,新土地在整个19世纪的美国都被用于农业。主观强调边远地区关闭混淆了国际贸易发展和随之的结果在19世纪下半页对农业带来的重大变化。阿根廷、澳大利亚、加拿大和美国西部的大量土地被开垦,这些地区彼此交易,同时也跟欧洲国家建立交易从而形成了一个独立的市场体系。这样,农业的萧条不再限于一个地区和单独一个国家,而是殃及多国,只要这些国家的国内边远地区尚未消失,或者不会即将消失。在19世纪70-90年代,美国日益增加的农业不满情绪几乎是和其农产品在国际市场价格一路下滑同时发生的。

 

9. The author is primarily concerned with

(A) showing that a certain interpretation is better supported by the evidence than is an alternative explanation

(B) developing an alternative interpretation by using sources of evidence that formerly had been unavailable

(C) questioning the accuracy of the evidence that most scholars have used to counter the author‘s own interpretation

(D) reviewing the evidence that formerly had been thought to obscure a valid interpretation

(E) presenting evidence in support of a controversial version of an earlier interpretation.

正确答案:A

答案解析:文章属现象解释文章,作者认为农业不满是因为国际贸易而不是可开垦耕地的减少,答案A.

 

10. According to the author, changes in the conditions of international trade resulted in an

(A) underestimation of the amount of new land that was being famed in the United States

(B) underutilization of relatively small but rich plots of land

(C) overexpansion of the world transportation network for shipping agricultural products

(D) extension of agrarian depressions beyond national boundaries

(E) emphasis on the importance of market forces in determining the prices of agricultural products

正确答案:D

答案解析: 定位如上题,可以得出答案:A. Excluding 错了,应该是including;B. 答案;C. 文章没有体现出depression slow down 的迹象;D. nonagricultural products,新内容;E. sell more of their agricultural products,新内容;

 

11. The author implies that, after certain territories and countries had been joined into an interdependent market system in the nineteenth century, agrarian depressions within that system

(A) spread to several nations, excluding those in which the internal frontier remained open

(B) manifested themselves in several nations,including those in which new land remained available for farming

(C) slowed down the pace of new technological developments in international communications and transportation

(D) affected the local and national prices of the nonagricultural products of several nations

(E) encouraged several nations to sell more of their agricultural products on foreign markets

正确答案:D

答案解析:文章说1880s 价格低的很厉害,农民兄弟们希望赚大钱,所以希望价格高的很厉害,

 

12. The author‘s argument implies that, compared to the yearly price changes that actually occurred on foreign agricultural markets during the 1880‘s, American farmers would have most preferred yearly price changes that were

(A) much smaller and in the same direction

(B) much smaller but in the opposite direction

(C) slightly smaller and in the same direction

(D) similar in size but in the opposite direction

(E) slightly greater and in the same direction

正确答案:E

答案解析:文章一直强调一种similarity,选E;

 

When the same parameters and quantitative theory are used to analyze both termite colonies and troops of rhesus macaques, we will have a unified science of sociobiology. I have been increasingly impressed with the functional similarities between insect and vertebrate societies and less so with the structural differences that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them. Consider termites and macaques. Both form cooperative groups that occupy territories. In both kinds of society there is a well-marked division of labor. Members of both groups communicate to each other hunger, alarm, hostility, caste status or rank, and reproductive status. From the specialist‘s point of view, this comparison may at first seem facile—or worse. But it is out of such deliberate oversimplification that the beginnings of a general theory are made. (134 words)

翻译:

当同样的参数和量化理论用于分析白蚁群落和M(猿猴)群落时,就有了统一的社会生物学。我对昆虫和脊椎动物社会功能相似性印象越来越深,而其结构上的差异,尽管最初看上去是巨大的不同则越来越不重要。想象一下白蚁和M群落,在所属领地上都建立了互助的社会,在这样的社会里,都有非常明确的分工,每个社会成员都相互交流饥饿、警报、敌对等信息,他们等级分明,都有自己的繁殖地位。从专家的角度看,这种比较可能看上去很容易或者更简单,但是正式这种故意为之的简化,开始了形成一个普便的理论。

 

13. Select the sentence in the passage in which the author suggests that there are significant structural differences between insect and vertebrate societies.

正确答案:I have been increasingly impressed

答案解析:通过“structural differences”即可定位。确切讲应该是答案的后半句话“less so with the structural differences that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them”

 

以上就是新GRE阅读理解真题36套+翻译+答案解析-Exercise 6,接下来会一一为大家分享剩余的部分哦!

 

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