Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not only human morphology but also human behavior. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints-ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that "come naturally" in archetypal situations in any culture. Our"frailties‖"–emotions and motives such as rage, fear,greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love—may be a very mixed assortment, but they share at least one immediate quality: we are, as we say, "in the grip‖" of them. And thus they give us our sense of constraints.
Unhappily, some of those frailties—our need for ever-increasing security among them—are presently maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail, they, too, are said to be biological in direction,and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes.We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they guide us now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure. (174 words)
1. Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy from human morphology for the ―details‖ versus ―constraints‖ distinction made in the passage in relation to human behavior?
(A) The ability of most people to see all the colors of the visible spectrum as against most people‘s inability to name any but the primary colors
(B) The ability of even the least fortunate people to show compassion as against people‘s inability to mask their feelings completely
(C) The ability of some people to dive to great depths as against most people‘s inability to swim long distances
(D) The psychological profile of those people who are able to delay gratification as against people‘s inability to control their lives completely
(E) The greater lung capacity of mountain peoples that helps them live in oxygen-poor air as against people‘s inability to fly without special apparatus
答案解析：类比题，这道题BT，援引chasedream 上面ShadowInShadow 的解释，说实话看了我也太明白，考试的时候遇到就随他去吧。。。于是这是一个类比题，需要找出与“details vs.constraints”关系相近的一组，并且是在human morphology 方面。解决类比题的方法就是找出关键词和逻辑关系。这个题目来说，就是各种humanmorphology 方面的constraints(身体形态方面的负环境)和human morphology 方面的details(身体形态上的特征)。注意我特别标红了“身体形态上的”这个定语，类比题里面，这些定语绝对是最容易出干扰选项的了。做题时，看到这个定语就应该有所警觉，什么心理上的、行为上的之类之类的特征细节，一律干掉。如果你这么想了，那么恭喜你，就这一个理由，你就可以轻易地干掉A-D，直接扑到正确选项E。做题做到这里，就应该拍拍屁股做下一个题。但毕竟是关乎重大的考试，而且这个考试特别特别贵，总有同学不放心。于是ta会看一看E 选项是怎么说的。"The greater lung capacity of mountain peoplesthat helps them live in oxygen-poor air as against peoples inability to fly without special pparatus"不得不说这样做题是不对的，但是既然有需求，我们就看一看这句话。它说，“生活在山区的人的大的肺活量使得他们能在低氧情况下生存vs. 人不借助工具就没法飞起来”。前者是人体形态上的一个小细节小特征，后者是人体形态方面的一个不足限制，恰好满足题目要求。
2. It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the author assumes that
(A) evolution does not favor the emergence of adaptive characteristics over the emergence of maladaptive ones
(B) any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory
(C) maladaptive characteristics, once fixed,make the emergence of other maladaptive characteristics more likely
(D) the designation of a characteristic as being maladaptive must always remain highly tentative
(E) changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change
答案解析："Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail,they, too, are said to be biological in direction,and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes."这句话说这些不适应性在各种东西的作用下，和阑尾一样，是生物进化的正常现象。而ABCD 选项都表现出(在某个方面)不正常，与文章相反，干掉。
The molecules of carbon dioxide in the Earth‘s atmosphere affect the heat balance of the Earth by acting as a one-way screen. Although these molecules allow radiation at visible wavelengths, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated, to pass through, they absorb some of the longer-wavelength,infrared emissions radiated from the Earth‘s surface,radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space. For the Earth to maintain a constant aver age temperature, such emissions from the planet must balance incoming solar radiation. If there were no car-bon dioxide in the atmosphere, heat would escape from the Earth much more easily. The surface temperature would be so much lower that the oceans might be a solid mass of ice. (120 words)
3. According to the passage, the greatest part of the solar energy that reaches the Earth is
(A) concentrated in the infrared spectrum
(B) concentrated at visible wavelengths
(C) absorbed by carbon dioxide molecules
(D) absorbed by atmospheric water vapor
(E) reflected back to space by snow and ice
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply
4. According to the passage, atmospheric carbon dioxide performs which of the following functions
□A absorbing radiation at visible wavelengths
□B absorbing outgoing radiation from the Earth
□C helping to retain heat near the Earth‘s surface
答案解析：分别看一下：A. L5-L6 说允许pass through;B. L7 看到了absorb 吸收了来自地球表面的辐射;备选;C. L11“If there were no car-bon dioxide in the atmosphere, heat would escape from the Earth much more easily.”得出答案。
Initially the Vinaver theory that Malory‘s eight romances, once thought to be fundamentally unified. were in fact eight independent works produced both a sense of relief and an unpleasant shock. Vinaver‘s theory comfortably explained away the apparent contradictions of chronology and made each romance independently satisfying. It was, however, disagreeable to find that what had been thought of as one book was now eight books. Part of this response was the natural reaction to the disturbance of set ideas. Nevertheless, even now, after lengthy consideration of the theory‘s refined but legitimate observations, one cannot avoid the conclusion that the eight romances are only one work. It is not quite a matter of disagreeing with the theory of independence, but of rejecting its implications: that the romances may be taken in any or no particular order, that they have no cumulative effect, and that they are as separate as the works of a modern novelist.(154 words)
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Malory‘s works?
□A There are meaningful links between and among the romances.
□B The subtleties of the romances are obscured when they are taken as one work.
□C Any contradictions in chronology among the romances are less important than their over-all unity.
答案解析： 文章的几个转折：a) Initially ， V 人的理论(M8r 独立)，她为年代上的冲突做了辩解(explain away)，使他们的独立性和合理。b) 然而，有些人却发现曾经认为的八本书现在是一本书。这可能是一种受传统固定观念(V 的观点)发生动摇后的自然反应。c) 然而(程度转折)，时至今日我们不能否认： 8r 就是一本书(作者的最后观点：统一not 分离)d) 作者进行让步，表达出并没有完全反对V，只是不同意V观点的暗示的一种暧昧的感觉。A. 符合作者最后的观点B. 文章没有出现这种obscure 的感觉，同时，如果B 成立了其实是反驳了作者的观点。C. 作者质疑了V 的观点，引出自己的观点，C 选项正好体现出了作者这种用意。
6. The author of the passage concedes which of the following about the Vinaver theory?
(A) It gives a clearer understanding of the unity of Malory‘s romances.
(B) It demonstrates the irrationality of considering Malory‘s romances to be unified.
(C) It establishes acceptable links between Malory‘s romances and modern novels.
(D) It unifies earlier and later theories concerning the chronology of Malory‘s romances.
(E) It makes valid and subtle comments about Malory‘s romances.
答案解析： 问：作者concede 了V 人的什么?很纠结的题目，其实也不难，既然问了是concede，直接选一个正评价符合文章内容的选项就好了。A. 说反了，V 人觉得是分离的;B. V 人虽然想表达分离的意思，但V 人没有指出统一观点的不合理性C. 没有modern novels，新内容;D. 没有讲earlier and later 的感觉;E. 文章最后做了让步，题干问的就是让步，所以直接选出一个正向感觉的选项即可。
7. It can be inferred from the passage that, in evaluating the Vinaver theory, some critics were
(A) frequently misled by the inconsistencies in Malory‘s work
(B) initially biased by previous interpretations of Malory‘s work
(C) conceptually displeased by the general interpretation that Vinaver rejected
(D) generally in agreement with Vinaver‘s comparisons between Malory and modern novelists
(E) originally skeptical about Vinaver‘s early conclusions with respect to modern novels
答案解析：previous interpretations 对应set ideas，找出第二个转折的地方即可。
8. Which of the following most logically completes the argument below?
Each year every employee of SAI Corporation must enroll in one of the two health insurance plans offered by SAI. One plan requires a sizable monetary contribution from employees; the other plan is paid for entirely by SAI. Many SAI employees enroll in the plan requiring employee contributions. This fact does not show that they feel that this plan‘s benefits are superior to those provided by the plan requiring no employee contribution since----.
(A) the plan that requires an employee contribution costs and enrolled employee significantly less per year than do typical health insurance plans offered by corporations other than SAI
(B) only SAI employees who have worked for SAI for at least fifteen years are eligible to enroll in the plan paid for entirely by SAI
(C) the two health insurance plans currently offered by SAI are substantially the same plans SAI has offered for the past ten years
(D) most of the SAI employees enrolled in the plan paid for entirely by SAI are under 50 years old
(E) both plans offered by SAI provide benefits not only for employees of SAI but also for children and spouses of enrolled employees
答案解析：定位L17，“Consequently, agrarian depressions no longer were local or national in scope, and they struck several nations whose internal frontiers had not vanished or were not about to vanish.”可得出答案。
The historian Frederick J. Turner wrote in the 1890‘s that the agrarian discontent that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870 had been precipitated by the closing of the internal frontier--that is, the depletion of available new land needed for further expansion of the American farming system. Actually, however, new lands were taken up for farming in the United States throughout and beyond the nineteenth century. In the 1890‘s, when agrarian discontent had become most acute, 1,100,000 new farms were settled, which was 500,000 more than had been settled during the previous decade. After 1890, under the terms of the Homestead Act and its successors, more new land was taken up for farming than had been taken up for this purpose in the United States up until that time. It is true that a high proportion of the newly farmed land was suitable only for grazing and dry farming, but agricultural practices had become sufficiently advanced to make it possible to increase the profitability of farming by utilizing even these relatively barren lands.
The emphasis of the presumed disappearance of the American frontier obscured the great importance of changes in the conditions and consequences of international trade that occurred during the second half of the nineteenth century. Huge tracts of land were being settled and farmed in Argentina, Australia, Canada, and in the American West, and these areas were joined with one another and with the countries of Europe into an interdependent market system. Consequently, agrarian depressions no longer were local or national in scope, and they struck several nations whose internal frontiers had not vanished or were not about to vanish. Between the early 1870‘s and the 1890‘s, the mounting agrarian discontent in America paralleled the almost uninterrupted decline in the prices of American agricultural products on foreign markets. Those staple-growing farmers in the United States who exhibited the greatest discontent were those who had become most dependent on foreign markets for the sale of their products. Insofar as Americans had been deterred from taking up new land for farming, it was because market conditions had made this period a perilous time in which to do so.(369 words)
9. The author is primarily concerned with
(A) showing that a certain interpretation is better supported by the evidence than is an alternative explanation
(B) developing an alternative interpretation by using sources of evidence that formerly had been unavailable
(C) questioning the accuracy of the evidence that most scholars have used to counter the author‘s own interpretation
(D) reviewing the evidence that formerly had been thought to obscure a valid interpretation
(E) presenting evidence in support of a controversial version of an earlier interpretation.
10. According to the author, changes in the conditions of international trade resulted in an
(A) underestimation of the amount of new land that was being famed in the United States
(B) underutilization of relatively small but rich plots of land
(C) overexpansion of the world transportation network for shipping agricultural products
(D) extension of agrarian depressions beyond national boundaries
(E) emphasis on the importance of market forces in determining the prices of agricultural products
答案解析： 定位如上题，可以得出答案：A. Excluding 错了，应该是including;B. 答案;C. 文章没有体现出depression slow down 的迹象;D. nonagricultural products，新内容;E. sell more of their agricultural products，新内容;
11. The author implies that, after certain territories and countries had been joined into an interdependent market system in the nineteenth century, agrarian depressions within that system
(A) spread to several nations, excluding those in which the internal frontier remained open
(B) manifested themselves in several nations,including those in which new land remained available for farming
(C) slowed down the pace of new technological developments in international communications and transportation
(D) affected the local and national prices of the nonagricultural products of several nations
(E) encouraged several nations to sell more of their agricultural products on foreign markets
12. The author‘s argument implies that, compared to the yearly price changes that actually occurred on foreign agricultural markets during the 1880‘s, American farmers would have most preferred yearly price changes that were
(A) much smaller and in the same direction
(B) much smaller but in the opposite direction
(C) slightly smaller and in the same direction
(D) similar in size but in the opposite direction
(E) slightly greater and in the same direction
When the same parameters and quantitative theory are used to analyze both termite colonies and troops of rhesus macaques, we will have a unified science of sociobiology. I have been increasingly impressed with the functional similarities between insect and vertebrate societies and less so with the structural differences that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them. Consider termites and macaques. Both form cooperative groups that occupy territories. In both kinds of society there is a well-marked division of labor. Members of both groups communicate to each other hunger, alarm, hostility, caste status or rank, and reproductive status. From the specialist‘s point of view, this comparison may at first seem facile—or worse. But it is out of such deliberate oversimplification that the beginnings of a general theory are made. (134 words)
13. Select the sentence in the passage in which the author suggests that there are significant structural differences between insect and vertebrate societies.
正确答案：I have been increasingly impressed
答案解析：通过“structural differences”即可定位。确切讲应该是答案的后半句话“less so with the structural differences that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them”