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新GRE阅读36套真题+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 5

来源:智思整理 | 2019-07-2522

新GRE阅读36套真题第五套中,第八题只有答案,暂无答案解析,请见谅!以下是第五套GRE阅读真题的完整真题及翻译,同学们不要错过哦!下载,请直接拖至文章结尾,获取GRE阅读36套全套的PDF百度网

新GRE阅读36套真题第五套中,第八题只有答案,暂无答案解析,请见谅!以下是第五套GRE阅读真题的完整真题及翻译,同学们不要错过哦!

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新GRE阅读36套真题+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 5

Many theories have been formulated to explain the role of grazers such as zooplankton in controlling the amount of planktonic algae (phytoplankton) in lakes. The first theories of such grazer control were merely based on observations of negative correlations between algal and zooplankton numbers. A low number of algal cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested, but did not prove, that the grazers had removed most of the algae. The converse observation, of the absence of grazers in areas of high phytoplankton concentration, led Hardy to propose his principle of animal exclusion, which hypothesized that phytoplankton produced a repellent that excluded grazers from regions of high phytoplankton concentration. This was the first suggestion of algal defenses against grazing.

Perhaps the fact that many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be collected in a net (net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton (nannoplankton) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on, led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research. Increasingly, as in the individual studies of Lund, Round, and Reynolds, researchers began to stress the importance of environmental factors such as temperature, light, and water movement in controlling algal numbers. These environmental factors were amenable to field monitoring and to simulation in the laboratory. Grazing was believed to have some effect on algal numbers, especially after phytoplankton growth rates declined at the end of bloom periods, but grazing was considered a minor component of models that predicted algal population dynamics.

The potential magnitude of grazing pressure on freshwater phytoplankton has only recently been determined empirically. Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated natural community grazing rates by measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the known population density of grazers. The high estimates of grazing pressure postulated by these researchers were not fully accepted, however, until the grazing rates of zooplankton were determined directly in the field, by means of new experimental techniques.Using a specially prepared feeding chamber, Haney was able to record zooplankton grazing rates in natural field conditions. In the periods of peak zooplankton abundance, that is, in the late spring and in the summer, Haney recorded maximum daily community grazing rates, for nutrient-poor lakes and bog lakes, respectively, of 6.6 percent and 114 percent of daily phytoplankton production. Cladocerans had higher grazing rates than copepods, usually accounting for 80 percent of the community grazing rate. These rates varied seasonally, reaching the lowest point in the winter and early spring. Haney‘s thorough research provides convincing field evidence that grazers can exert significant pressure on phytoplankton population. (461 words)

翻译:

已经有很多理论来解释湖泊中作为猎食者的浮游动物决定浮游藻类植物的数量。最初浮游动物决定论,只是建立在观察到的浮游植物和浮游动物之间存在负相关性。在浮游动物数量很多的情况下浮游动物数量很少,表明但是并没有被证实,浮游动物清除了大量的浮游植物。相反的情况,即在浮游动物较少的区域富有植物数量就比较集中使得Hard提出了动物排斥的原则,他假设浮游植物产生了一种趋避物质,这种物质使得浮游动物被排除在浮游植物集中的区域。这是第一次假设浮游植物可以抵御浮游动物吞噬的暗示。

可能许多这些最初的研究对于浮游植物尺寸,只是考虑了我们能以用网来收集到的那部分,这实际上忽视了那些更小的浮游植物(如纤浮游植物),而我们现在知道这些更小的浮游植物是浮游动物们最爱捕食的,这样在随后的研究中浮游动物的作用就会被低估。越来越多的,单独研究,如L、R和RE,学者们开始强调环境因素,比如温度、光线和水的流动性在控制浮游植物数量上的作用。这些环境因素适于野外监测,也适用于实验室模仿。学者们认为浮游动物确实对于浮游植物的数量有影响,特别是在浮游植物数量增长后期其增长率开始下降的时候,但是在预测浮游植物数量变化的模型中,浮游动物的吞噬被认为微乎其微。

浮游动物对于浮游植物的影响力很大是最近才通过实验证明的。根据H和G的研究,他们通过在实验里计算个体浮游动物的进食率,然后用已知的浮游动物密度来计算野外条件下浮游动物社区的进食率,进而来估计自然条件下浮游动物的食草率。但是这些学者假定的来自浮游动物压力主要是估量的,这个假定不能被完全接受,除非通过新的实验手段可以直接获得浮游动物食草率的情况。通过特殊设计的喂食空间,H记录了自然条件下浮游动物的食草率。H的记录表明,在浮游动物数量达到顶峰的那段时期,也就是晚春和夏天,浮游动物整体日食草率最大,在营养匮乏和丰富湖中,分别是6.6%和114%。Cla比Co具有更高的食草率,通常占到整个社区80%的食草率。这些数据随季节有所变化,冬天和早春最低。H详尽的研究提供了令人信服的野外证据,表明浮游动物对浮游植物的数量具有很大影响。

新GRE阅读36套真题Exercise 5的1-5题的答案解析:

1. It can be inferred from the passage that the ―first theories‖ of grazer control mentioned in the first paragraph would have been more convincing if researchers had been able to

(A) observe high phytoplankton numbers under natural lake conditions

(B) discover negative correlations between algae and zooplankton numbers from their field research

(C) understand the central importance of environmental factors in controlling the growth rates of phytoplankton

(D) make verifiable correlations of cause and effect between zooplankton and phytoplankton numbers

(E) invent laboratory techniques that would have allowed them to bypass their field research concerning grazer control

正确答案:D

答案解析:定位到L4,“merely,题目问如何改进,直接取反即可,答案D。

 

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

2. The author would be likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding the pressure of grazers on phytoplankton numbers?

□A Grazing pressure can vary according to the individual type of zooplankton.

□B Grazing pressure can be lower in nutrient-poor lakes than in bog lakes.

□C Grazing tends to exert about the same pressure as does temperature.

正确答案:AB

答案解析:通过人名直接定位,L11 的人名,往上L9 开始这一句话,converse 告诉我们这里H 是想证明另外一种数量上(浮游植物多,就会造成浮游动物的减少)的负相关,也就是浮游植物会干掉浮游动物。选项B 道出了,浮游动物的减少与浮游植物无关,直接质疑了H 的这个观点。

 

3. It can be inferred from the passage that one way in which many of the early researchers on grazer control could have improved their data would have been to

(A) emphasize the effects of temperature, rather than of light, on phytoplankton

(B) disregard nannoplankton in their analysis of phytoplankton numbers

(C) collect phytoplankton of all sizes before analyzing the extent of phytoplankton concentration

(D) recognize that phytoplankton other than net phytoplankton could be collected in a net

(E) understand the crucial significance of net phytoplankton in the diet of zooplankton

正确答案:C

答案解析:A. 定位在L50-L55,体现不同生活环境不同种类的浮游植物都是不同的。B. 定位同上,很简单的比较。C. 文章没有提到same 的感觉。

 

4. According to the passage, Hargrave and Geen did which of the following in their experiments?

(A) They compared the grazing rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory with the natural grazing rates of these species.

(B) They hypothesized about the population density of grazers in natural habitats by using data concerning the population density of grazers in the laboratory.

(C) They estimated the community grazing rates of zooplankton in the laboratory by using data concerning the natural community grazing rates of zooplankton.

(D) They estimated the natural community grazing rates of zooplankton by using data concerning the known population density of phytoplankton.

(E) They estimated the natural community grazing rates of zooplankton by using laboratory data concerning the grazing rates of individual zooplankton species.

正确答案:E

答案解析: 定位在第二段首,说忽略了small 浮游植物。改善题直接取非。选C。

 

Spiders of many species change color to match the pigmentation of the flowers they sit on. The insects preyed on by those spiders, unlike human beings, possess color discrimination so acute that they can readily see the spiders despite the seeming camouflage. Clearly, then, it must be in evading their own predators that the spiders‘color changes are useful to them.

5. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Among the animals that feed on color-changing spiders are a few species of bat,which find their prey through sound echoes.

(B) Certain animals that feed on color-changing spiders do so only sparingly in order to keep from ingesting harmful amounts of spider venom.

(C) Color-changing spiders possess color discrimination that is more acute than that of spiders that lack the ability to change color.

(D) Color-changing spiders spin webs that are readily seen by the predators of those spiders.

(E) The color discrimination of certain birds that feed on color-changing spiders is no more acute than that of human beings.

正确答案:E

答案解析:通过人名定位L37,一个长难度(杨鹏GRE、GMAT长难句序言的例句),“Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated natural community grazing rates(目的) by(方法) measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory and then(两个步骤) computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the known population density of grazers(两个黄色部分重复).”

 

The belief that art originates in intuitive rather than rational faculties was worked out historically and philosophically in the somewhat wearisome volumes of Benedetto Croce, who is usually considered the originator of a new aesthetic. Croce was, in fact, expressing a very old idea. Long before the Romantics stressed intuition and self-expression, the frenzy of inspiration was regarded as fundamental to art, but philosophers had always assumed it must be controlled by law and by the intellectual power of putting things into harmonious order. This general philosophic concept of art was supported by technical necessities. It was necessary to master certain laws and to use intellect in order to build Gothic cathedrals, or set up the stained glass windows of Chartres. When this bracing element of craftsmanship ceased to dominate artists‘ outlook, new technical elements had to be adopted to maintain the intellectual element in art. Such were linear perspective and anatomy.(156 words)

翻译:

关于艺术起源于直觉而非理性能力的理论,由C在其令人略感厌倦乏味的著作中从历史和哲学的角度阐述建立起来的, C通常被认为是新的美学的鼻祖。实际上,C表达的是一个很古老的观点。早在浪漫主义强调直觉和自我表达之前,对灵感的狂热被认为是艺术之本,但是哲学家一贯认为,这些灵感必须受制于规则和能够把事物协调统一起来的理性能力。技术需求支持这个有关艺术的一般哲学概念,为了建造一个哥特教堂,或者要给Chater建造一个染色玻璃的窗户,必须要掌握一定规则和运用一些理性。当这一工艺的主导因素不再主宰艺术家的视野,为了保持艺术的理性成分,就要采用新的技术元素。这就是线性视角和解剖学。

 

新GRE阅读36套真题Exercise 5的6-8题的答案解析:

6. The passage suggests that which of the following would most likely have occurred if linear perspective and anatomy had not come to influence artistic endeavor?

(A) The craftsmanship that shaped Gothic architecture would have continued to dominate artists‘ outlooks.

(B) Some other technical elements would have been adopted to discipline artistic inspiration.

(C) Intellectual control over artistic inspiration would not have influenced painting as it did architecture.

(D) The role of intuitive inspiration would not have remained fundamental to theories of artistic creation.

(E) The assumptions of aesthetic philosophers before Croce would have been invalidated.

正确答案:B

答案解析:暂缺

 

7. Select the sentence in the passage that indicates a traditional assumption of aesthetic philosophers.

正确答案:Long before the Romantics

答案解析:通过“traditional assumption of aesthetic philosophers”定位L6

 

8. The author mentions ―linear perspective and anatomy‖ in the last sentence in order to do which of the following ?

(A) Expand his argument to include painting as well as architecture

(B) Indicate his disagreement with Croce‘s theory of the origins of art

(C) Support his point that rational order of some kind has often seemed to discipline artistic inspiration

(D) Explain the rational elements in Gothic painting that corresponded to craftsmanship in Gothic architecture

(E) Show the increasing sophistication of artists after the Gothic period

正确答案:C

答案解析:定位倒数第二句话:A. 没有painting;B. 距离Croce 比较远,并且该句话没有讨论起源;C. 答案;对应着文章的主旨:rational order 对inspiration 的discipline 的关系;D. 没有题painting,不知道那个stained glass 算不算painting,并且craftsmanship已经cease 了,这里不是指它。E. 没有明显after G period 的感觉。

 

Nahuatl, like Greek and German, is a language that allows the formation of extensive compounds. By the combination of radicals or semantic elements, single compound words can express complex conceptual relations, often of an abstract universal character.

The tlamatinime (―those who know‖) were able to use this rich stock of abstract terms to express the nuances of their thought. They also availed themselves of other forms of expression with metaphorical meaning,some probably original, some derived from Toltec coinages. Of these forms the most characteristic in Nahuatl is the juxtaposition of two words that, because they are synonyms, associated terms, or even contraries, complement each other to evoke one single idea. Used as metaphor, the juxtaposed terms connote specific or essential traits of the being they refer to, introducing a mode of poetry as an almost habitual form of expression.(140 words)

翻译:

N语言,像希腊语和德语一样,允许广泛的组合词。通过词根和语义元素的组合,一个合成词可以表达复杂的概念关系,通常是抽象广义的单词。

T们(学者们)能够运用这些丰富的常备的抽象词去表达他们思想上的细微差异。他们也把用这些合成词帮助他们进行其他带有比喻方式的表达,有的是原创的,有的是来自T。在这些形式当中,最典型的是将两个单词并列,因为他们同义或是有关联,甚至是反义,这两个词互补在一起来表达一个单独的意思。通过比喻,并列词表达着他们要表达的事物的具体或重要的特性,形成了诗体,并几乎作为一个惯常的表达方式。

 

新GRE阅读36套真题Exercise 5的9-10题的答案解析:

9. According to the passage, some abstract universal ideas can be expressed in Nahuatl by

(A) taking away from a word any reference to particular instances

(B) removing a word from its associations with other words

(C) giving a word a new and opposite meaning

(D) putting various meaningful elements together in one word

(E) turning each word of a phrase into a poetic metaphor

正确答案:D

答案解析:定位L2-L4 直接得出选项。

 

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

10. It can be inferred solely from the information in the passage EXCEPT that

□A all abstract universal ideas are ideas of complex relations

□B some record or evidence of the thought of the tlamatinime exists

□C metaphors are always used in Nahuatl to express abstract conceptual relationships

正确答案:AC

答案解析: Except 题:A. All 太绝对;B. L7;C. 还是上述定位,文章说“They also availed themselves of other forms of expression with metaphorical meaning”

 

Since science tries to deal with reality, even the most precise sciences normally work with more or less imperfectly understood approximations toward which scientists must maintain an appropriate skepticism. Thus,for instance, it may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom, but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin, magnetic dipole, and relativistic effects; and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations. Physicists, looking at the original Schrodinger equation, learn to sense in it the presence of many invisible terms in addition to the differential terms visible, and this sense inspires an entirely appropriate disregard for the purely technical features of the equation. This very healthy skepticism is foreign to the mathematical approach. Mathematics must deal with well-defined situations. Thus, mathematicians depend on an intellectual effort outside of mathematics for the crucial specification of the approximation that mathematics is to take literally. (177 words)

翻译:

因为科学试图处理的是现实,即使是最精确的科学研究通常都或多或少地带有没有被完全理解的近似值,科学家必须对此保持合理的怀疑精神。因此,例如,对于数学家而言必然会大吃一惊,如果他们发现有关水原子的S等式并不是对这一原子精准的表述,而只是一定程度上考虑了旋转、磁力和相对论效应,对于这一等式更准确些的近似值。而这个得以纠正的方程式就其本身也只是一个不完美的近似值,趋近于无限一整套量子场论方程式。物理学家们在审视最初的S等式,认识到除了已知的元素外还有许多未知的因素,这一认知激发了他们完全恰当的放弃了纯粹技术特征的等式。这一合理的怀疑论与数学的研究方法大相径庭。数学家们所要处理的是非常明确的情形。这样,数学家依靠除数学外理性的努力,对近似值进行至关重要的具体化处理,并刻板地予以接受。

 

新GRE阅读36套真题Exercise 5的11-12题的答案解析:

11. According to the passage, scientists are skeptical toward their equations because scientists

(A) work to explain real, rather than theoretical or simplified, situations

(B) know that well-defined problems are often the most difficult to solve

(C) are unable to express their data in terms of multiple variables

(D) are unwilling to relax the axioms they have developed

(E) are unable to accept mathematical explanations of natural phenomena

正确答案:A

答案解析:定位第一句话,因为真实所以应该保持适当的怀疑。(文章后面的其实就是在讲“theoretical or simplified, situations”,一些纯理论或者忽视一些未知条件的简单状况)

 

12. The author implies that scientists develop a healthy skepticism because they are aware that

(A) mathematicians are better able to solve problems than are scientists

(B) changes in axiomatic propositions will inevitably undermine scientific arguments

(C) well-defined situations are necessary for the design of reliable experiments

(D) mathematical solutions can rarely be applied to real problems

(E) some factors in most situations must remain unknown

正确答案:E

答案解析:定位在L18,看见“This”证明之前有所交代,往前看,我们知道是invisible term导致“inspires an entirely appropriate disregard for purely technical features ”,从而导致situation 不能很好的well-defined。所以答案E.

 

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