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GRE阅读真题36套+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 4

来源:智思整理 | 2019-07-25577

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise4最后一个短篇缺少翻译,还请同学们见谅,或者有翻译资源的同学们,也可以分享给我们智思教育哦!下载提示:想要直接下载PDF版的GRE阅读36套真题的同学,请直接拖至文章...

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise 4最后一个短篇缺少翻译,还请同学们见谅,或者有翻译资源的同学们,也可以分享给我们智思教育哦!

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GRE阅读真题36套+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 4

It is a popular misconception that nuclear fusion power is free of radioactivity; in fact, the deuterium- tritium reaction that nuclear scientists are currently exploring with such zeal produces both alpha particles and neutrons. (The neutrons are used to produce tritium from a lithium blanket surrounding the reactor.) Another common misconception is that nuclear fusion power is a virtually unlimited source of energy because of the enormous quantity of deuterium in the sea. Actually, its limits are set by the amount of available lithium, which is about as plentiful as uranium in the Earth‘s crust. Research should certainly continue on controlled nuclear fusion, but no energy program should be premised on its existence until it has proven practical. (122 words)

翻译:

一个很普遍的错误理解是核聚变能量没有辐射。事实上,科学家们现在热衷研究的D-T反应同时产生阿尔法粒子和中子(通常这些中子产生T从覆盖核反应堆的锂里)。另一个错误理解就是核聚变能量是能无限的能量来源因为海洋中存在巨多的D元素。实际上,由于D元素多少取决于锂元素的多少,后者在地壳中的量跟铀元素的差不多。对于可控的核聚变的研究可定应该继续,但是在证明确实可行之前,能源项目不能以此为前提。

 

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise 4-答案及解析:

1. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about the current state of public awareness concerning nuclear fusion power?

(A) The public has been deliberately misinformed about the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion power.

(B) The public is unaware of the principal advantage of nuclear fusion over nuclear fission as an energy source.

(C) The public‘s awareness of the scientific facts concerning nuclear fusion power is somewhat distorted and incomplete.

(D) The public is not interested in increasing its awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion power.

(E) The public is aware of the disadvantages of nuclear fusion power but not of its advantages. For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

正确答案:C

答案解析:文章主要讲了两个misconception,为负评价,选C 选项。

 

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise 4-答案及解析:

2. The passage provides information that would answer which of the following questions EXCEPT?

□A How much incidental radiation is produced in the deuterium tritium fusion reaction?

□B What is likely to be the principal source of deuterium for nuclear fusion power?

□C Why are scientists exploring the deuterium- tritium fusion reaction with such zeal?

正确答案:AC

答案解析:定位文章L10,“Actually, its limits are set by the amount of available lithium”,说nuclear fusion power 这个东西无限,因为D 无限,然而D 的限制是被L 这个东西的数量控制了,所以可以推断出L 可能是D 的主要来源。

 

Roger Rosenblatt‘s book Black Fiction, in attempting to apply literary rather than sociopolitical criteria to its subject, successfully alters the approach taken by most previous studies. As Rosenblatt notes, criticism of Black writing has often served as a pretext for expounding on Black history. Addison Gayle‘s recent work, for example, judges the value of Black fiction by overtly political standards, rating each work according to the notions of Black identity which it propounds.

Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances, its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideological, and talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of ideology circumvents much of the fictional enterprise. Rosenblatt‘s literary analysis discloses affinities and connections among works of Black fiction which solely political studies have overlooked or ignored.

Writing acceptable criticism of Black fiction, however, presupposes giving satisfactory answers to a number of questions. First of all, is there a sufficient reason,other than the racial identity of the authors, to group together works by Black authors? Second, how does Black fiction make itself distinct from other modern fiction with which it is largely contemporaneous? Rosenblatt shows that Black fiction constitutes a distinct body of writing that has an identifiable, coherent literary tradition. Looking at novels written by Blacks over the last eighty years, he discovers recurring concerns and designs independent of chronology. These structures are thematic, and they spring, not surprisingly,from the central fact that the Black characters in these novels exist in a predominantly White culture, whether they try to conform to that culture or rebel against it.

Black Fiction does leave some aesthetic questions open. Rosenblatt‘s thematic analysis permits considerable objectivity; he even explicitly states that it is not his intention to judge the merit of the various works—yet his reluctance seems misplaced, especially since an attempt to appraise might have led to interesting results. For instance, some of the novels appear to be structurally diffuse. Is this a defect, or are the authors working out of, or trying to forge, a different kind of aesthetic? In addition, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Toomer‘s Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism;does this technique provide a counterpoint to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Black heroes are pitted, a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of expression?

In spite of such omissions, what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion makes for an astute and worthwhile study. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnson‘s Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Its argument is tightly constructed, and its forthright, lucid style exemplifies levelheaded and penetrating criticism.

翻译:

R的书“Black Fiction”《黑人小说》中,试图用文学标准而不是社会政治学标准去看待黑人小说,成功地改变了大多数之前被采用的研究方法。正如R所说,对黑人写作的评论通常只是作为详细论述黑人历史的借口。以AG最近的作品为例,他明显以政治标准评判黑人小说的价值,按照这些黑人作品提出的对黑人身份的特性对每一部作品进行评估。

虽然小说毫无争议地起源于所处的政治环境,但是小说的作者对这些环境的反应并不是以意识形态的方式,因此以意识形态为手段来讨论小说和故事阻碍了小说事业。R的文学分析方法揭示出黑人小说间的关联性,而单从政治视角来研究黑人小说就会忽视这种相关性。

然而,要撰写出让人可接受的有关黑人小说的评论,必须对以下几个问题作出满意的回答。首先,除了对小说作者种族认知外,是否还有其他理由把这些黑人作者的小说归为一类?其次,黑人小说怎样有别于同时代的大量其他小说?R证明了黑人小说形成了一个清晰、连贯的,与众不同的文学传统。他以之前80年的黑人小说为例,揭示出独立于时代的反复出现的小说关注点和结构。这些结构是主题性的,而且毫不奇怪源于这样一个中心事实,即小说中的人物都生活一个在白人文化占据统治地位的背景下,无论他们遵循或者是反对这种白人文化。

《黑人小说》一书对很多美学问题没有予以回答。R的主题分析允许相当程度的客观性;他甚至明确说,评价众多小说的优劣并不是他的本意,然而这种不情愿似乎并不合时宜,特别是评价可能产生更有趣的结果。比如,有些效果看过去结构松散,这是一种作品的缺陷还是另一种美学解释——作者故意而为?此外,有些黑人小说的写作风格,如JT的Crane,很像印象主义或是超现实主义,这种手法是否和当时流行的主题——一个印象主义的更自然化的风格,即主要描述黑人主人公如何战胜命运形成相互对比照应?

尽管有一些不足,R的论述确实提供了一个敏锐的、有价值的研究。《黑人小说》一书调查了众多的小说,也使我们关注到一些非常引人入胜但是之前鲜为人知的作品,比如JWJ的Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man 。《黑人小说》一书结构严谨,率直清晰的风格亦是客观、有深度的评论的典范。

 

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise 4-答案及解析:

3. The author of the passage objects to criticism of Black fiction like that by Addison Gayle because it

(A) emphasizes purely literary aspects of such fiction

(B) misinterprets the ideological content of such fiction

(C) misunderstands the notions of Black identity contained in such fiction

(D) substitutes political for literary criteria in evaluating such fiction

(E) ignores the interplay between Black history and Black identity displayed in such fiction

正确答案:D

答案解析:定位L7:“judges the value of Black fiction by overtly political standards”以及第一段第一句话“in attempting to apply literary rather than sociopolitical criteria to its subject”,可以得出答案。

 

4. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) evaluating the soundness of a work of criticism

(B) comparing various critical approaches to a subject

(C) discussing the limitations of a particular kind of criticism

(D) summarizing the major points made in a work of criticism

(E) explaining the theoretical background of a certain kind of criticism

正确答案:A

答案解析:文章主要在讨论一本著作,发表作者自己的观点,并且正负评价都有,选A。

 

5. The author of the passage believes that Black Fiction would have been improved had Rosenblatt

(A) evaluated more carefully the ideological and historical aspects of Black fiction

(B) attempted to be more objective in his approach to novels and stories by Black authors

(C) explored in greater detail the recurrent thematic concerns of Black fiction throughout its history

(D) established a basis for placing Black fiction within its own unique literary tradition

(E) assessed the relative literary merit of the novels he analyzes thematically

正确答案:E

答案解析: 既然是改进题,肯定要对作者对该事物的负评价取非; 首先找到负评价:定位在L34 开始的第三段文章,作者主要说R 人并没有在主观上,对一些作品的价值进行评价,从而留下了很多审美上的问题。取非后,我们发现五个选项里只有E 最合适。A. Ideological 和historical 都没有无论正向负向意思都没有在负评价段落内出现;B. 他就是因为太客观了,没有自己的意见才会被作者指出来,小批评了一下;C. 在第三段中,没有说他抽象(不够细节)的感觉;D. Own unique 确实和答案很接近,但是后面是tradition,不是evaluation 或者是assessment

 

6. The author of the passage refers to James Weldon Johnson‘s Autobiography of an Ex- Colored Man most probably in order to

(A) point out affinities between Rosenblatt‘s method of thematic analysis and earlier criticism

(B) clarify the point about expressionistic style made earlier in the passage

(C) qualify the assessment of Rosenblatt‘s book made in the first paragraph of the passage

(D) illustrate the affinities among Black novels disclosed by Rosenblatt‘s literary analysis

(E) give a specific example of one of the accomplishments of Rosenblatt‘s work

正确答案:E

答案解析: 用书名定位,问例子的作用,找到之前的观点:“what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion makes for an astute and worthwhile study. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works”,我们发现基本都是很好的词汇来表扬这本书的;后面举得例子一定是为这句话服务的。D 选项比较迷惑(我选了),不选它个人觉得是因为文章中红字部分,作者只是用这个书名来强调Black Fiction 给我们带来的好处,而不是affinities;选E.

 

The transfer of heat and water vapor from the ocean to the air above it depends on a disequilibrium at the interface of the water and the air. Within about a millimeter of the water, air temperature is close to that of the surface water, and the air is nearly saturated with water vapor. But the differences, however small, are crucial, and the disequilibrium is maintained by air near the surface mixing with air higher up, which is typically appreciably cooler and lower in water-vapor content.The air is mixed by means of turbulence that depends on the wind for its energy. As wind speed increases, so does turbulence, and thus the rate of heat and moisture transfer. Detailed understanding of this phenomenon awaits further study. (127 words)

翻译:

热量和水蒸气从海洋到海洋上空的空气的传递取决于水和空气两者交界处的不均衡。在水面大约1毫米处,空气温度接近于水表面温度,那里的空气主要是水蒸气。但是差异至关重要,尽管变化可能很小;水和空气交界面的不均衡,主要是由接近水表面的空气和高空的空气混合造成的,高空的空气通常明显温度低并且水蒸气少。两种空气由于气流作用混合在一起,气流大小主要是由风决定的。当风速增加时,气流也增大,导致热量和水蒸气之间的传递。对这一现象更深入的理解还有待进一步研究。

 

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise 4-答案及解析:

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

7. According to the passage, wind over the ocean generally does which of the following?

□A Causes relatively cool, dry air to come into proximity with the ocean surface.

□B Maintains a steady rate of heat and moisture transfer between the ocean and the air.

□C Causes frequent changes in the temperature of the water at the ocean‘s surface.

正确答案:A

答案解析:问风有啥用?定位L10,我们就知道了风的作用:提供turbulence 的能量,因此就增强了温度和湿度的交互,也就是前文所讲的空气和海水的接触。A. 正确选项B. 原文说“As wind speed increases, so does turbulence, and thus the rate of heat and moisture transfer.”也就是高速风会导致 高速率交互,可是选项中说的是steady rate,什么样的风才能导致steady rate呢?根据文章的内容只能是steady 的风,但是题干问的只是风的作用,不是什么样的风都能让它steady 的,所以不选。C. 文章压根儿没提过温度的变化频率问题。


8. The passage suggests that if on a certain day the wind were to decrease until there was no wind at all which of the following would occur?

(A) The air closest to the ocean surface would become saturated with water vapor.

(B) The air closest to the ocean surface would be warmer than the water.

(C) The amount of moisture in the air closest to the ocean surface would decrease.

(D) The rate of heat and moisture transfer would increase.

(E) The air closest to the ocean would be at the same temperature as air higher up.

正确答案:A

答案解析:如上题所讲,wind 增加,会增加漩涡,从而增加mixed air,从而增加不平衡;这时候我们继续往前找,看到不平衡的同义词difference 后面有一个however small,肯定前面有一个很small 感觉的东西,我们看见有一个nearly,我们知道后面所有的这些东西的存在实际上都是在支持这个nearly,一旦后面取非,这个nearly 也将不复存在。

 

―I want to criticize the social system, and to show it at work, at its most intense.‖ Virginia Woolf‘s provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics, since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the ―poetic‖ novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness. But Virginia Woolf was a realistic as well as a poetic novelist, a satirist and social critic as well as a visionary: literary critics‘ cavalier dismissal of Woolf‘s social vision will not withstand scrutiny.

In her novels, Woolf is deeply engaged by the questions of how individuals are shaped (or deformed) by their social environments, how historical forces impinge on people‘s lives, how class, wealth, and gender help to determine people‘s fates. Most of her novels are rooted in a realistically rendered social setting and in a precise historical time. (163 words)

翻译:

“我要批评社会体系,揭示它是怎样运作的,在社会最紧要时刻”VW在她的Mrs Dallowa一书中具有挑衅性的观点经常被批评家们所忽视,因为这一表述只强调了她文学兴趣的某一方面,即不同于传统的诗体小说家的方面,他们关注于对虚无缥缈梦幻状态的审视和遵循个人意识的曲径通幽。但是VW确实是一个现实主义和浪漫主义的小说家,一个讽刺家、社会批评家,同时还是一个梦想家:文学批评家们对W的社会浪漫主义的无视是经不起推敲的。

在W的小说中,她被这样的问题深深吸引:社会环境是怎样塑造或扭曲个人的;历史力量如何对个人生活造成冲击;阶级、财富以及性别怎样决定人的命运。她绝大多数小说都植根于现实的社会背景,并具有明确的历史时代。

 

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise 4-答案及解析:

9. In the first paragraph of the passage, the author‘s attitude toward the literary critics mentioned can best be described as

(A) disparaging

(B) ironic

(C) facetious

(D) skeptical but resigned

(E) disappointed but hopeful

正确答案:A

答案解析:主旨题:提到literary critic 的只有第一段,L4 的ignore 告诉了我们答案。

 

10. It can be inferred from the passage that the most probable reason Woolf realistically described the social setting in the majority of her novels was that she

(A) was aware that contemporary literary critics considered the novel to be the most realistic of literary genres

(B) was interested in the effect of a person‘s social milieu on his or her character and actions

(C) needed to be as attentive to detail as possible in her novels in order to support the arguments she advanced in them

(D) wanted to show that a painstaking fidelity in the representation of reality did not in any way hamper the artist

(E) wished to prevent critics from charging that her novels were written in an ambiguous and inexact style

正确答案:B

答案解析:用social setting 定位L15 直接告诉了我们答案。

 

11. In the context of the passage, ―poetic‖ is closest in meaning to

○A socioeconomic

○B realistic

○C political

○D visionary

○E literary

正确答案:D

答案解析: 这种题在考试中不知道会不会像托福一样标注出来,我做题的时候就一直在L10的那个poetic 纠结了很久,答案也是选错了;如果是问第一个带引号的那个的话,用后面“examining states of reverie and vision”的分词结构就能选出答案, reverie是幻想曲、幻想;vision 不只是视力、美景的意思,也有想象、幻想的感觉。

 

Auditor from Acme Industries: Last week at Acme Bakery, about six percent of the pastries baked during the night shift were found to be imperfect, but no imperfect pastries were found among those baked during the day shift. Pastries are inspected during the same shift in which they are baked, so clearly the night-shift quality control inspectors were more alert, despite their nighttime work hours, than the dayshift quality control inspectors.

GRE阅读真题36套Exercise 4-答案及解析:

12. The argument depends on the assumption that

(A) at least some imperfect pastries were baked during the day shift at Acme Bakery last week

(B) not all of the pastries that the night-shift quality control inspectors judged to be imperfect were in fact imperfect

(C) the night-shift quality control inspectors received more training in quality control procedures than did the day-shift quality control inspectors

(D) in a normal week, fewer than six percent of the pastries baked during the night shift at Acme Bakery are found to be imperfect

(E) there are only two shifts per day at Acme Bakery, a day shift and a night shift

正确答案:A

 

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