The dark regions in the starry night sky are not pockets in the universe that are devoid of stars as had long been thought. Rather, they are dark because of interstellar dust that hides the stars behind it. Although its visual effect is so pronounced, dust is only a minor constituent of the material, extremely low in density, that lies between the stars. The average density of interstellar material in the vicinity of our Sun is 1,000 to 10,000 times less than the best terrestrial laboratory vacuum. It is only because of the enormous interstellar distances that so little material per unit of volume becomes so significant. Optical astronomy is most directly affected, for although interstellar gas is perfectly transparent, the dust is not. (125 words)
星空下的黑色区域并不像人们一直以为的是没有星星的。实际上，这些区域呈现黑色是因为星际间的尘埃把星星遮挡在下面了。虽然视觉效果很明显，但是尘埃只占那些密度极低的星际物质中很少的一部分。太阳附近的平均星际密度比地球上能达到的最真空状态的密度还要小 1000 到 10000 倍。因为星际间的距离是如此之大以至于单位体积很小的物质也变得很明显。尽管星际间的气体非常透明，但是由于尘埃不透明，所以最直接影响到光学天文学。
1. According to the passage, which of the following is a direct perceptual consequence of interstellar dust EXCEPT?
□A Some stars are rendered invisible to observers on Earth.
□B Many visible stars are made to seem brighter than they really are.
□C The dust is conspicuously visible against a background of bright stars.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that it is because space is so vast that
(A) little of the interstellar material in it seems substantial
(B) normal units of volume seem futile for measurements of density
(C) stars can be far enough from Earth to be obscured even by very sparsely distributed matter
(D) interstellar gases can, for all practical purposes, be regarded as transparent
(E) optical astronomy would be of little use even if no interstellar dust existed
定位到文章L10，“It is only because of the enormous interstellar distances that so little material per unit of volume becomes so significant”
A. 这个是ETS 在T 和G 中最常用的伎俩，选项的每个词长得和文章原句极为相似，并且还同义替换了一个关键词，简直就是正确答案，如果没有C 他就是正确答案;B. 文章没有说normal units;C. 相对完美的诠释了原文的句子，比A 选项内容更丰满，正确选项;D. 句子中没有gas;E. 句子没有涉及，即使涉及和文章表达的意思相反;
In Hardy‘s novels, various impulses were sacrificed to each other inevitably and often. Inevitably, because Hardy did not care in the way that novelists such as Flaubert or James cared, and therefore took paths of least resistance. Thus, one impulse often surrendered to a fresher one and, unfortunately, instead of exacting a compromise, simply disappeared. A desire to throw over reality a light that never was might give way abruptly to the desire on the part of what we might consider a novelist-scientist to record exactly and concretely the structure and texture of a flower. In this instance, the new impulse was at least an energetic one, and thus its indulgence did not result in a relaxed style. But on other occasions Hardy abandoned a perilous, risky, and highly energizing impulse in favor of what was for him the fatally relaxing impulse to classify and schematize abstractly. When a relaxing impulse was indulged, the style—that sure index of an author‘s literary worth—was certain to become verbose. (167 words)
3. Which of the following words could best be substituted for ―relaxed‖ (line 13) without substantially changing the author‘s meaning?
4. The passage supplies information to suggest that its author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the novelists Flaubert and James?
(A) They indulged more impulses in their novels than did Hardy in his novels.
(B) They have elicited a greater degree of favorable response from most literary critics than has Hardy.
(C) In the writing of their novels, they often took pains to effect a compromise among their various novelistic impulses.
(D) Regarding novelistic construction, they cared more about the opinions of other novelists than about the opinions of ordinary readers.
(E) They wrote novels in which the impulse toward realism and the impulse away from realism were evident in equal measure.
5. Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the passage (―Thus…abstractly‖)?
(A) The author makes a disapproving observation and then presents two cases,one of which leads to a qualification of his disapproval and the other of which does not.
(B) The author draws a conclusion from a previous statement, explains his conclusion in detail, and then gives a series of examples that have the effect of resolving an inconsistency.
(C) The author concedes a point and then makes a counterargument, using an extended comparison and contrast that qualifies his original concession.
(D) The author makes a judgment, points out an exception to his judgment, and then contradicts his original assertion.
(E) The author summarizes and explains an argument and then advances a brief history of opposing arguments.
A mysterious phenomenon is the ability of over-water migrants to travel on course. Birds, bees, and other species can keep track of time without any sensory cues from the outside world, and such ―biological clocks‖ clearly contribute to their ―compass sense.‖ For example, they can use the position of the Sun or stars, along with the time of day, to find north. But compass sense alone cannot explain how birds navigate the ocean: after a flock traveling east is blown far south by a storm, it will assume the proper northeasterly course to compensate. Perhaps, some scientists thought, migrants determine their geographic position on Earth by celestial navigation, almost as human navigators use stars and planets, but this would demand of the animals a fantastic map sense.Researchers now know that some species have a magnetic sense, which might allow migrants to determine their geographic location by detecting variations in the strength of the Earth‘s magnetic field. (157 words)
6. The main idea of the passage is that
(A) migration over land requires a simpler explanation than migration over water does
(B) the means by which animals migrate over water are complex and only partly understood
(C) the ability of migrant animals to keep track of time is related to their magnetic sense
(D) knowledge of geographic location is essential to migrants with little or no compass sense
(E) explanations of how animals migrate tend to replace, rather than build on, one another
答案解析：主旨题：全文都在将水上的导航over water 的只有A、B;A 中有无中生有的进行了陆地和水上的比较，所以答案B。
7. It can be inferred from the passage that if the flock of birds described in lines 8-9 were navigating by compass sense alone, they would, after the storm, fly
8. Of the following descriptions of migrating animals, which most strongly suggests that the animals are depending on magnetic cues to orient themselves?
(A) Pigeons can properly readjust their course even when flying long distances through exceedingly dense fogs.
(B) Bison are able to reach their destination by passing through a landscape that has been partially altered by a recent fire.
(C) Elephants are able to find grounds that some members of the herd have never seen before.
(D) Swallows are able to return to a given spot at the same time every year.
(E) Monarch butterflies coming from different parts of North America are able to arrive at the same location each winter.
答案解析：定位到L15：“Researchers now know that some species have a magnetic sense,which might allow migrants to determine their geographic location by detecting variations in the strength of the Earth‘s magnetic field.”只有A 选项的readjust 体现出了一种对variation 的detect 以及据此进行相应的调整、应变。
Starting from the premise that mythology and legend preserve at least a nucleus of historical fact, Bachofen argued that women were dominant in many ancient societies. His work was based on a comprehensive survey of references in the ancient sources to Amazonian and other societies with matrilineal customs—societies in which descent and property rights are traced through the female line. Some support for his theory can be found in evidence such as that drawn from Herodotus, the Greek―historian‖ of the fifth century B. C. Nonetheless, this assumption that the first recorders of ancient myths have preserved facts is problematic. Ancient Greek descriptions of those societies were meant not so much to represent observed historical fact—real Amazonian societies—but rather to offer ―moral lessons‖ on the supposed outcome of women‘s rule in their own society. The Amazons were often characterized, for example, as the equivalents of giants and centaurs, enemies to be slain by Greek heroes; thus, their customs were presented not as those of a respectable society, but as the very antitheses of ordinary Greek practices. (179 words)
9. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) compare competing new approaches to understanding the role of women in ancient societies
(B) investigate the ramifications of Bachofen‘s theory about the dominance of women in ancient societies
(C) explain the burgeoning interest among historians in determining the actual status of women in various societies
(D) analyze the nature of Amazonian society and uncover similarities between it and the Greek world
(E) criticize the value of ancient myths in determining the status of women in ancient societies
答案解析： 主旨题：A. 文章没有compare，这一点上，前文提到B 人，后文提到H 人容易给人造成错觉;B. 没有讨论到分支和理论衍生;C. 没有提到增长的兴趣;D. 没有similarities 这种感觉;E. 根据G 的文章的特点，虽然criticize 只有后半部分，但是它属于转折后，属于文章强调的部分，即是文章主旨。
10. Select the sentence in the passage that is presented as evidence supporting the author‘s view of the ancient Greeks‘ descriptions of the Amazons.
正确答案：The Amazons were often
答案解析： L17 的for example，即该句话就是答案。
11. The author‘s attitude toward Bachofen‘s treatise is best described as one of
(A) qualified approval
(B) profound ambivalence
(C) studied neutrality
(D) pointed disagreement
(E) unmitigated hostility
答案解析： 虽然文章总体基调是criticize，E 有点过了吧，所以答案D。
Visual recognition involves storing and retrieving memories. Neural activity, triggered by the eye, forms an image in the brain‘s memory system that constitutes an internal representation of the viewed object. When an object is encountered again, it is matched with its internal representation and thereby recognized. Controversy surrounds the question of whether recognition is a parallel, one-step process or a serial, step-by-step one. Psychologists of the Gestalt school maintain that objects are recognized as wholes in a parallel procedure: the internal representation is matched with the retinal image in a single operation. Other psychologists have proposed that internal representation features are matched serially with an object‘s features. Although some experiments show that, as an object becomes familiar, its internal representation becomes more holistic and the recognition process correspondingly more parallel, the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis, at least for objects that are not notably simple and familiar.(151 words)
12. The author is primarily concerned with
(A) explaining how the brain receives images
(B) synthesizing hypotheses of visual recognition
(C) examining the evidence supporting the serial-recognition hypothesis
(D) discussing visual recognition and some hypotheses proposed to explain it
(E) reporting on recent experiments dealing with memory systems and their relationship to neural activity For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply
答案解析：主旨题：现象解释型文章，含有“Visual recognition”只有BD，D 符合文章类型。
13. According to the passage, Gestalt psychologists make which of the following suppositions about visual recognition?
□A A retinal image is in exactly the same forms as its internal representation.
□B An object is recognized as a whole without any need for analysis into component parts.
□C The matching of an object with its internal representation occurs in only one step.
答案解析：根据Gestalt 大写字母定位L9-L13：A. *Form 在文中没有找到替换重复，属于新内容;B. G 主张的是one-step 的parallel 方法，符合题意;into component parts是另外的step-by-step 方法;C. 同上