新GRE阅读36套原文+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 1

来源:智思整理 | 2019-07-251163

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新GRE阅读理解36套原文+翻译+答案解析——Exercise 1

Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following reading passage.

Immediately relevant to game theory are the sex ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a large excess of females. In these species, fertilized eggs develop into females and unfertilized eggs into males.A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of each egg she lays by fertilizing it or leaving it unfertilized. By Fisher‘s genetic argument that the sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted, it should pay a female to produce equal numbers of sons and daughters. Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their host—the larva of another insect—and that the newly emerged adult wasps mate immediately and disperse,offered a remarkably cogent analysis. Since only one female usually lays eggs in a given larva, it would pay her to produce one male only, because this one male could fertilize all his sisters on emergence. Like Fisher, Hamilton looked for an evolutionarily stable strategy,but he went a step further in recognizing that he was looking for a strategy.


1. The author suggests that the work of Fisher and Hamilton was similar in that both scientists

(A) conducted their research at approximately the same time

(B) sought to manipulate the sex ratios of some of the animals they studied

(C) sought an explanation of why certain sex ratios exist and remain stable

(D) studied game theory, thereby providing important groundwork for the later development of strategy theory

(E) studied reproduction in the same animal species


1. 第一题定位到文章最后一句话,结合文章主旨直接得出答案。
A. 新内容,same time;
B. 新内容,manipulate;(注:sought 是seek(寻求)的过去式;)
C. 答案;
D. 新内容,game theory(实际上该文是由长阅读截取的,未保留的部门是有涉及博弈论的内容的), later development;
E. 虽然貌似一直都在说reproduction,但是文章主旨是强调sex ratios;

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

2. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about wasps?

□A How many eggs does the female wasp usually lay in a single host larva?

□B Can some species of wasp determine sex ratios among their offspring?

□C What is the approximate sex ratio among the offspring of parasitic wasps?


A. 文章没有任何数字;
B. 定位第五行:“A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of each egg she lays”
C. 文章后半部分并没有涉及到“卵在别人家孩子肚子里的这种情况”的具体性别比例。

3. Which of the following is NOT true of the species of parasitic wasps discussed in the passage?

(A) Adult female wasps are capable of storing sperm.

(B) Female wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of other insects.

(C) The adult female wasp can be fertilized by a male that was hatched in the same larva as herself.

(D) So few male wasps are produced that extinction is almost certain.

(E) Male wasps do not emerge from their hosts until they reach sexual maturity.

A. 定位第五行: “A female stores sperm and can determine the
sex of each egg she lays”
B. 定位在12 行:“Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their host—the larva of another insect”;
C. 定位到17 行:“because this one male could fertilize all his sisters on emergence”,也就是说,在同一个幼虫体内长大的兄弟姐妹们是可以互相交配的,事实上只有一个兄弟就够了。
D. Female 手里有sperm(杀夫取精),生男生女看心情,只要有她在,就不会灭绝。
E. 定位在L13,“the newly emerged adult wasps mate immediately”

Questions 4 to 5 are based on the following reading passage.

Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was not a fluid, egalitarian society where individual wealth and poverty were ephemeral conditions. At least to argues E. Pessen in his iconoclastic study of the very rich in the United States between 1825 and 1850.

Pessen does present a quantity of examples, together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics, to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class. Though active in commerce or the professions, most of the wealthy were not self-made, but had inherited family fortunes. In no sense mercurial, these great fortunes survived the financial panics that destroyed lesser ones. Indeed, in several cities the wealthiest one percent constantly increased its share until by 1850 it owned half of the community‘s wealth. Although these observations are true, Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden, plutocratic society even before industrialization. (162 words)



4. According to the passage, Pessen indicates that all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT:

(A) They formed a distinct upper class.

(B) Many of them were able to increase their holdings.

(C)Some of them worked as professionals or in business.

(D) Most of them accumulated their own fortunes.

(E) Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals.


A. 定位L7:“establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class.”
B. 注意L11 的不能self-made 和不能increasing holding 是两个概念,文中的富二代们直接继承家产就是一个很好的例子。
C. 定位L9,“Though active in commerce or the professions”(再次在转折让步中设问)
D. 这个是self-made 的准确重复了。
E. 定位L12,“In no sense mercurial, these great fortunes survived the financial panics”,其中“in no sense”表示一种否定强调,“mercurial‖在填空题中考过,源于“Mercury”罗马神话中的墨丘利,希腊神话中的赫尔墨斯(Hermes),由于墨丘利口才出众,聪颖过人但又喜欢偷东西,所以有eloquence, ingenuity,or thievishness 三个意思;正是因为具有聪明狡诈的商人特点,被奉为商业(merchant)之神;同时又因为墨丘利跑的很快(脚上穿着NIKE 飞行靴),所以又有了rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood 的意思,所以太阳系中离太阳最近,跑的最快的行星-水星,由他的名字命名,这里用的是变幻莫测的含义(老G 填空考的也是这个意思),指的是在金融危机中,这些富人们,没有发生一丁点儿变化,毫发无伤的感觉。

5. Which of the following best states the author‘s main point?
(A) Pessen‘s study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early nineteenth-century America.

(B) Tocqueville‘s analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period.

(C) Pessen‘s study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century.

(D) The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented.

(E) Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic system in the United States from 1825 to 1850, but he draws conclusions that are incorrect.


答案解析:5. 文章首先从正向介绍了P 的观点,L16 出现了转折之后,开始表达出了作者做P人的负评价,五个选项中只有E 选项涵盖正负两层的含义。

Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen, through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles‘ wet weight. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a verte-brate are proportional to the size of the animal. If, for example, some predators had attacked a 100-tondinosaur, normally torpid, the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously, viaanaerobic glycolysis, the energy of 3,000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production.


6. The passage‘s suggestion that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate‘s size is based on which of the following assumption?

(A) larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates

(B) larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates

(C) the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size

(D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size

(E) the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize

答案解析:定位L4:“The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of theirmuscles‘ wet weight.”我们可以从中知道amount of anaerobic energy 和muscles wet weight 正相关,题目中问的如果amount of anaerobic energy 和vertebrate‘s size 正相关,基于的假设很明显当然是muscles wet weight 和vertebrate‘ssize 的正相关。

Extraordinary creative activity has been characterized as revolutionary, flying in the face of what is established and producing not what is acceptable but what will become accepted. According to this formulation, highly creative activity transcends the limits of an existing form and establishes a new principle of organization. How-ever, the idea that extraordinary creativity transcends established limits in misleading when it is applied to the arts, even though it may be valid for the sciences.

Difference between highly creative art and highly creative science arise in part from a difference in their goals. For the sciences, a new theory is the goal and end result of the creative act. Innovative science produces new propositions in terms of which diverse phenomena can be related to one another in more coherent ways. Such phenomena as a brilliant diamond or a nesting bird are relegated to the role of data, serving as the means for formulating or testing a new theory. The goal of highly creative art is very different: the phenomenon itself becomes the direct product of the creative act.

Shakespeare‘s Hamlet is not a tract about the behavior of indecisive princes or the uses of political power; nor is Picasso‘s painting Guernica primarily a propositional statement about the Spanish Civil War or the evils of fascism. What highly creative artistic activity produces is not a new generalization that transcends established limits, but rather an aesthetic particular. Aesthetic particulars produced by the highly creative artist extend or exploit, in an innovative way, the limits of an existing form, rather than transcend that form.

This is not to deny that a highly creative artist some-times establishes a new principle of organization in the history of an artistic field; the composer Monteverdi,who created music of the highest aesthetic value, comes to mind. More generally, however, whether or not a composition establishes a new principle in the history of music has little bearing on its aesthetic worth. Because they embody a new principle of organization, some musical works, such as the operas of the Florentine Camerata, are of signal historical importance, but few listeners or musicologists would include these among the great works of music. On the other hand, Mozart‘s The Marriage of Figaro is surely among the masterpieces of music even though its modest innovations are confined to extending existing means. It has been said of Beethoven that he toppled the rules and freed music from the stifling confines of convention. But a close study of his compositions reveals that Beethoven overturned no fundamental rules. Rather, he was an incomparable strategist who exploited limits—the rules, forms, and conventions that he inherited from predecessors such as Haydn and Mozart, Handel and Bach—in strikingly original ways.(466words)


For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

7. The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?

A Has unusual creative activity been characterized as revolutionary?

B Did Beethoven work within a musical tradition that also included Handel and Bach?

C Who besides Monteverdi wrote music that the author would consider to embody new principles of organization and to be of high aesthetic value?

答案解析:A. 定位第一句话;B.定位最后一句话,注意这里的“such as”指的是“inherited from predecessors”这个行为,这种关系而不是单指“predecessors”;C. besides 的M 人就没有be of high aesthetic value,更何况其他人呢,排除;

8. The author regards the idea that all highly creative artistic activity transcends limits with

(A) deep skepticism

(B) strong indignation

(C) marked indifference

(D) moderate amusement

(E) sharp derision

答案解析:定位L40,“but few listeners or musicologists would include these among the great works of music” 并不是一种十分强烈的负评价的感觉,所以marked indifference 最合适。

9. The author implies that an innovative scientific contribution is one that

(A) is cited with high frequency in the publications of other scientists

(B) is accepted immediately by the scientific community

(C) does not relegate particulars to the role of data

(D) presents the discovery of a new scientific fact

(E) introduces a new valid generalization

答案解析:*定位L13,“Innovative science produces new propositions in terms of which diverse phenomena can be related to one another in more coherent ways.“Generalization” 重复“diverse phenomena can be related to one another in more coherent ways”

10. Which of the following statements would most logically concluded the last paragraph of the passage?

(A) Unlike Beethoven, however, even the greatest of modern composers, such as Stravinsky, did not transcend existing musical forms.

(B) In similar fashion, existing musical forms were even further exploited by the next generation of great European composers.

(C) Thus, many of the great composers displayed the same combination of talents exhibited by Monteverdi.

(D) By contrast, the view that creativity in the arts exploits but does not transcend limits is sup-ported in the field of literature.

(E) Actually, Beethoven‘s most original works were largely unappreciated at the time that they were first performed.

答案解析:问最后一段,排除法:A. 新内容,Stravinsky 这个人是从哪儿冒出来的?B. L49 的“he was an incomparable strategist who exploited limits in strikingly original ways”无不体现出一种对后辈的赞美,和选项中的态度吻合。C. On the other hand(L43)告诉我们他们是不同的;  D. 新内容,Literature; E. 新内容,贝多芬作品的unappreciated;

Great comic art is never otherwordly, it does not seek to mystify us, and it does not deny ambiguity by branding as evil whatever differs from good. Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights,and thus they seek to accentuate contradictions in social action, not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose, or laws of nature. The moment of transcendence in great comic art is a social moment,born out of the conviction that we are human, even though we try to be gods. The comic community to which artists address themselves is a community of reasoning, loving, joyful, compassionate beings, who are willing to assume the human risks of acting rationally. Without invoking gods or demons, great comic art arouses courage in reason, courage which grows out of trust in what human beings can do as humans.

11. Select the sentence in the passage that suggests that great comic art can be characterized as optimistic about the ability of humans to act rationally.

正确答案:Without invoking gods
答案解析:注意不要因为倒数第二句中出现了很多类似“loving, joyful, compassionate”很开心的词汇,就选它;仔细分析主干我们知道,这句话的主语实际上是“The comic community”,但是题目问的是“great comicart”;而我们接着读就会幸运的发现下面说的这句话就是这帮人的乐观的感觉。“Grow out of”不要因为有“out”而有其他的想法,他就是“成长于……、产生,源自……”的意思,只有主语有长大的感觉的时候(比如小孩儿),才有负面的感觉,表示(由于长大而)遗弃……,e.g. She has grown out of her youth follies.

12. It can be inferred from the passage that the author admires great comic artists primarily for their

(A) ability to understand the frequently subtle differences between good and evil

(B) ability to reconcile the contradictions in human behavior

(C) ability to distinguish between rational and irrational behavior

(D) insistence on confronting the truth about the human condition

(E) insistence on condemning human faults and weaknesses

答案解析:态度题,从文章主旨意在表现这帮人坚持去除伪善伪恶后的人类本性, D 最为贴切。

13. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the organization of the passage?

(A) A sequence of observations leading to a prediction

(B) A list of inferences drawn from facts stated at the beginning of the passage

(C) A series of assertions related to one general subject

(D) A statement of the major idea, followed by specific examples

(E) A succession of ideas moving from specific to general

答案解析:写法题,结论解释型文章,排除法:A. Prediction 没出现;B. A list of 文章没有这种感觉;C. 正确答案;D. 没有例子;E. 感觉同上,没有具体到抽象