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新GRE阅读36套原文+翻译+答案解析+PDF下载-Exercise 1

来源:智思整理 | 2019-07-25791

GRE阅读理解什么资料比较好?对于GRE阅读还有待加强的同学来说,GRE阅读理解36套还是很有必要刷一下的,难度比OG难,是一套非常难得的经典GRE阅读理解资料。 智思GRE培训按照真题原文、翻译、答案解析,给大家重新整理了本套资料。当然有免费的PDF版下载。

GRE阅读理解什么资料比较好?对于GRE阅读还有待加强的同学来说,GRE阅读理解36套还是很有必要刷一下的,难度比OG难,是一套非常难得的经典GRE阅读理解资料。

智思GRE培训按照真题原文、翻译、答案解析,给大家重新整理了本套资料。当然有免费的PDF版下载。我们按照一个一个Exercise一篇一篇整理。以下是第一个Exercise.

 

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新GRE阅读理解36套原文+翻译+答案解析——Exercise 1

Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following reading passage.

Immediately relevant to game theory are the sex ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a large excess of females. In these species, fertilized eggs develop into females and unfertilized eggs into males.A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of each egg she lays by fertilizing it or leaving it unfertilized. By Fisher‘s genetic argument that the sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted, it should pay a female to produce equal numbers of sons and daughters. Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their host—the larva of another insect—and that the newly emerged adult wasps mate immediately and disperse,offered a remarkably cogent analysis. Since only one female usually lays eggs in a given larva, it would pay her to produce one male only, because this one male could fertilize all his sisters on emergence. Like Fisher, Hamilton looked for an evolutionarily stable strategy,but he went a step further in recognizing that he was looking for a strategy.

翻译:与博弈理论相关的是某些寄生黄蜂的性别比率,他们拥有大量的雌蜂。在这些蜂类中,受精卵孵化为雌蜂,未受精卵孵化为雄蜂。雌蜂储存精子,她产的每个卵子是否受精都由雌蜂决定。根据F的基因理论,生物倾向于这样的性别比例,即能够拥有最多数量的后代,因此能最大程度复制并传递基因,为此,产生等量的雌性和雄性后代对他们是有利的。H认识到这些卵都在宿主,即另外的昆虫的幼虫中孵化;而且,新产生的成蜂马上交配二手很快消失,对这些现象的认知,提供了更让人信服的分析。由于通常一个宿主幼虫只有一个雌蜂产卵,因此只孵化一只雄蜂便可获益匪浅,因为这只雄蜂可以使同时孵化出的所有的雌蜂都受精。和F一样,H也在寻找生物进化的稳定策略,但是他更深入了一步,认识到他正在寻找这样的策略。


1. The author suggests that the work of Fisher and Hamilton was similar in that both scientists

(A) conducted their research at approximately the same time

(B) sought to manipulate the sex ratios of some of the animals they studied

(C) sought an explanation of why certain sex ratios exist and remain stable

(D) studied game theory, thereby providing important groundwork for the later development of strategy theory

(E) studied reproduction in the same animal species

正确答案:C

解析:
1. 第一题定位到文章最后一句话,结合文章主旨直接得出答案。
A. 新内容,same time;
B. 新内容,manipulate;(注:sought 是seek(寻求)的过去式;)
C. 答案;
D. 新内容,game theory(实际上该文是由长阅读截取的,未保留的部门是有涉及博弈论的内容的), later development;
E. 虽然貌似一直都在说reproduction,但是文章主旨是强调sex ratios;


For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

2. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about wasps?

□A How many eggs does the female wasp usually lay in a single host larva?

□B Can some species of wasp determine sex ratios among their offspring?

□C What is the approximate sex ratio among the offspring of parasitic wasps?

正确答案:B

答案解析:
A. 文章没有任何数字;
B. 定位第五行:“A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of each egg she lays”
C. 文章后半部分并没有涉及到“卵在别人家孩子肚子里的这种情况”的具体性别比例。


3. Which of the following is NOT true of the species of parasitic wasps discussed in the passage?

(A) Adult female wasps are capable of storing sperm.

(B) Female wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of other insects.

(C) The adult female wasp can be fertilized by a male that was hatched in the same larva as herself.

(D) So few male wasps are produced that extinction is almost certain.

(E) Male wasps do not emerge from their hosts until they reach sexual maturity.

正确答案:D
答案解析:
A. 定位第五行: “A female stores sperm and can determine the
sex of each egg she lays”
B. 定位在12 行:“Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their host—the larva of another insect”;
C. 定位到17 行:“because this one male could fertilize all his sisters on emergence”,也就是说,在同一个幼虫体内长大的兄弟姐妹们是可以互相交配的,事实上只有一个兄弟就够了。
D. Female 手里有sperm(杀夫取精),生男生女看心情,只要有她在,就不会灭绝。
E. 定位在L13,“the newly emerged adult wasps mate immediately”


Questions 4 to 5 are based on the following reading passage.

Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was not a fluid, egalitarian society where individual wealth and poverty were ephemeral conditions. At least to argues E. Pessen in his iconoclastic study of the very rich in the United States between 1825 and 1850.

Pessen does present a quantity of examples, together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics, to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class. Though active in commerce or the professions, most of the wealthy were not self-made, but had inherited family fortunes. In no sense mercurial, these great fortunes survived the financial panics that destroyed lesser ones. Indeed, in several cities the wealthiest one percent constantly increased its share until by 1850 it owned half of the community‘s wealth. Although these observations are true, Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden, plutocratic society even before industrialization. (162 words)

翻译:
T学者很显然是错误所谓。J时代的美国并不是一个流动易变、平均主义的社会,个人富有和贫困只是一时的情况。至少根据P的理论,他对美国1825-1850年极富人群的研究破除了传统观念。

为了证明这个极富阶级确实存在,P提供了大量的事例和一些让人耳目一新、清楚明了的数据。虽然这些富人也活跃于商业和一些行业,但是大多数富人的财富不是白手起家的,而是家族世袭的。金融风暴使得资本少的人倾家荡产,而这些富人却得以保存并且好发无损。事实上,在一些城市这些最富裕的人的比例还继续增长,到1850年拥有一半的社会财富。虽然这些观察是真实情况,但是P根据这些得出结论,认为美国在18世纪晚期形成的无可争议的不平等在J执政时期依然持续,美国在工业革命之前就已经是一个阶级分化严重,财阀统治的社会,未免言过其实。


4. According to the passage, Pessen indicates that all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT:

(A) They formed a distinct upper class.

(B) Many of them were able to increase their holdings.

(C)Some of them worked as professionals or in business.

(D) Most of them accumulated their own fortunes.

(E) Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals.

正确答案:D

答案解析:
A. 定位L7:“establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class.”
B. 注意L11 的不能self-made 和不能increasing holding 是两个概念,文中的富二代们直接继承家产就是一个很好的例子。
C. 定位L9,“Though active in commerce or the professions”(再次在转折让步中设问)
D. 这个是self-made 的准确重复了。
E. 定位L12,“In no sense mercurial, these great fortunes survived the financial panics”,其中“in no sense”表示一种否定强调,“mercurial‖在填空题中考过,源于“Mercury”罗马神话中的墨丘利,希腊神话中的赫尔墨斯(Hermes),由于墨丘利口才出众,聪颖过人但又喜欢偷东西,所以有eloquence, ingenuity,or thievishness 三个意思;正是因为具有聪明狡诈的商人特点,被奉为商业(merchant)之神;同时又因为墨丘利跑的很快(脚上穿着NIKE 飞行靴),所以又有了rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood 的意思,所以太阳系中离太阳最近,跑的最快的行星-水星,由他的名字命名,这里用的是变幻莫测的含义(老G 填空考的也是这个意思),指的是在金融危机中,这些富人们,没有发生一丁点儿变化,毫发无伤的感觉。


5. Which of the following best states the author‘s main point?
(A) Pessen‘s study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early nineteenth-century America.

(B) Tocqueville‘s analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period.

(C) Pessen‘s study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century.

(D) The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented.

(E) Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic system in the United States from 1825 to 1850, but he draws conclusions that are incorrect.

正确答案:E

答案解析:5. 文章首先从正向介绍了P 的观点,L16 出现了转折之后,开始表达出了作者做P人的负评价,五个选项中只有E 选项涵盖正负两层的含义。


Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen, through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles‘ wet weight. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a verte-brate are proportional to the size of the animal. If, for example, some predators had attacked a 100-tondinosaur, normally torpid, the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously, viaanaerobic glycolysis, the energy of 3,000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production.

翻译:
所谓厌氧糖酵解,是指能量在无氧状态下通过肌肉糖原分解为能量物——物乳酸和ATP的过程。厌氧能量产生的多少与糖原的多少相关——在所有脊椎动物中大约是他们肌肉敬重的0.5%。这样,脊椎动物厌氧能量的储存和动物的体积成正比。比如如果捕食者攻击一个重达100吨的恐龙,这些恐龙尽管行动迟缓,但是他们通过厌氧糖酵解产生的即时能量相当于3000个人通过有氧代谢产生的能量。


6. The passage‘s suggestion that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate‘s size is based on which of the following assumption?

(A) larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates

(B) larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates

(C) the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size

(D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size

(E) the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize

正确答案:D
答案解析:定位L4:“The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of theirmuscles‘ wet weight.”我们可以从中知道amount of anaerobic energy 和muscles wet weight 正相关,题目中问的如果amount of anaerobic energy 和vertebrate‘s size 正相关,基于的假设很明显当然是muscles wet weight 和vertebrate‘ssize 的正相关。


Extraordinary creative activity has been characterized as revolutionary, flying in the face of what is established and producing not what is acceptable but what will become accepted. According to this formulation, highly creative activity transcends the limits of an existing form and establishes a new principle of organization. How-ever, the idea that extraordinary creativity transcends established limits in misleading when it is applied to the arts, even though it may be valid for the sciences.

Difference between highly creative art and highly creative science arise in part from a difference in their goals. For the sciences, a new theory is the goal and end result of the creative act. Innovative science produces new propositions in terms of which diverse phenomena can be related to one another in more coherent ways. Such phenomena as a brilliant diamond or a nesting bird are relegated to the role of data, serving as the means for formulating or testing a new theory. The goal of highly creative art is very different: the phenomenon itself becomes the direct product of the creative act.

Shakespeare‘s Hamlet is not a tract about the behavior of indecisive princes or the uses of political power; nor is Picasso‘s painting Guernica primarily a propositional statement about the Spanish Civil War or the evils of fascism. What highly creative artistic activity produces is not a new generalization that transcends established limits, but rather an aesthetic particular. Aesthetic particulars produced by the highly creative artist extend or exploit, in an innovative way, the limits of an existing form, rather than transcend that form.

This is not to deny that a highly creative artist some-times establishes a new principle of organization in the history of an artistic field; the composer Monteverdi,who created music of the highest aesthetic value, comes to mind. More generally, however, whether or not a composition establishes a new principle in the history of music has little bearing on its aesthetic worth. Because they embody a new principle of organization, some musical works, such as the operas of the Florentine Camerata, are of signal historical importance, but few listeners or musicologists would include these among the great works of music. On the other hand, Mozart‘s The Marriage of Figaro is surely among the masterpieces of music even though its modest innovations are confined to extending existing means. It has been said of Beethoven that he toppled the rules and freed music from the stifling confines of convention. But a close study of his compositions reveals that Beethoven overturned no fundamental rules. Rather, he was an incomparable strategist who exploited limits—the rules, forms, and conventions that he inherited from predecessors such as Haydn and Mozart, Handel and Bach—in strikingly original ways.(466words)

翻译:
卓越的创新行为一贯被视为革命性的,公然违抗那些已经确立的东西,不是制造我们已经接受的,而是创立我们终将接受的。按照这个阐述,高度创新行为超越了既存的形式的局限,建立了新的组织原则。然而,这一定义适用于科学却不适用于艺术。高度创新艺术和创新科学之间的差异一定程度上缘于二者目标不同。对于创新科学而言,一种全新的理论即是创造性行为的目标和终极结果。创新科学旨在通过新的理论将丰富多彩的现象更有说服力的关联起来。比如将一颗璀璨的钻石或是一个筑巢的小鸟被降级为一个数据用于推导或是验证一个新的理论。而创新艺术的目标则截然不同:现象本身成为创新艺术的直接产品。比如莎士比亚的哈姆雷特不是要描写一个优柔寡断的王子的行为或是政治权力运用的宣传手册;同样,毕加索的画作Guernica也主要不是对西班牙内战或是法西斯罪恶的命题描述。创新艺术产生的不是超越既存界限,产生新的普遍原则,而是产生一种美学上的特殊事物。这种美学特殊事物只是以创新的方式扩大或是利用了既存形式的界限而不是去超越他们。
当然,这并不否认高度创新艺术在艺术历史中有时也建立新的组织原则;作曲家M就是一个很好的例子,他创造了音乐最高美学价值。但是广义来说,一个曲子是否能在音乐史上建立新的原则和美学价值本身无关。有些音乐作品,因为能够代表新的组织原则,如歌剧FC,具有历史符号的重要性,但是很少有听众或音乐家认为这些是伟大音乐作品。另一方面,莫扎特的费列罗的婚礼无疑是伟大的音乐作品,尽管它只有适度的创新,只是将已经存在的音乐表现方式扩展了。我们可以说贝多芬推翻了音乐规则,将音乐从僵化窒息的传统里解放出来,但是仔细研究他的作品,可以发现贝多芬推翻的并不是基本原则,实际上他是个无以伦比的战略家,以令人瞩目的原创方式利用了那些从前人那里,比如海地、莫扎特、海德尔以及巴赫,继承而来的定义,这些定义包括规则、形式和传统。

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

7. The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?

A Has unusual creative activity been characterized as revolutionary?

B Did Beethoven work within a musical tradition that also included Handel and Bach?

C Who besides Monteverdi wrote music that the author would consider to embody new principles of organization and to be of high aesthetic value?

正确答案:AB
答案解析:A. 定位第一句话;B.定位最后一句话,注意这里的“such as”指的是“inherited from predecessors”这个行为,这种关系而不是单指“predecessors”;C. besides 的M 人就没有be of high aesthetic value,更何况其他人呢,排除;


8. The author regards the idea that all highly creative artistic activity transcends limits with

(A) deep skepticism

(B) strong indignation

(C) marked indifference

(D) moderate amusement

(E) sharp derision

正确答案:A
答案解析:定位L40,“but few listeners or musicologists would include these among the great works of music” 并不是一种十分强烈的负评价的感觉,所以marked indifference 最合适。


9. The author implies that an innovative scientific contribution is one that

(A) is cited with high frequency in the publications of other scientists

(B) is accepted immediately by the scientific community

(C) does not relegate particulars to the role of data

(D) presents the discovery of a new scientific fact

(E) introduces a new valid generalization

正确答案:E
答案解析:*定位L13,“Innovative science produces new propositions in terms of which diverse phenomena can be related to one another in more coherent ways.“Generalization” 重复“diverse phenomena can be related to one another in more coherent ways”


10. Which of the following statements would most logically concluded the last paragraph of the passage?

(A) Unlike Beethoven, however, even the greatest of modern composers, such as Stravinsky, did not transcend existing musical forms.

(B) In similar fashion, existing musical forms were even further exploited by the next generation of great European composers.

(C) Thus, many of the great composers displayed the same combination of talents exhibited by Monteverdi.

(D) By contrast, the view that creativity in the arts exploits but does not transcend limits is sup-ported in the field of literature.

(E) Actually, Beethoven‘s most original works were largely unappreciated at the time that they were first performed.

正确答案:B
答案解析:问最后一段,排除法:A. 新内容,Stravinsky 这个人是从哪儿冒出来的?B. L49 的“he was an incomparable strategist who exploited limits in strikingly original ways”无不体现出一种对后辈的赞美,和选项中的态度吻合。C. On the other hand(L43)告诉我们他们是不同的;  D. 新内容,Literature; E. 新内容,贝多芬作品的unappreciated;


Great comic art is never otherwordly, it does not seek to mystify us, and it does not deny ambiguity by branding as evil whatever differs from good. Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights,and thus they seek to accentuate contradictions in social action, not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose, or laws of nature. The moment of transcendence in great comic art is a social moment,born out of the conviction that we are human, even though we try to be gods. The comic community to which artists address themselves is a community of reasoning, loving, joyful, compassionate beings, who are willing to assume the human risks of acting rationally. Without invoking gods or demons, great comic art arouses courage in reason, courage which grows out of trust in what human beings can do as humans.
翻译:伟大的喜剧艺术从来不是超脱凡尘,它不去追求神秘化的东西,也从来不通过将与善不同的东西打上恶的烙印从而否认这种矛盾。伟大的喜剧艺术认为真理经受一切考研,所以它强调社会行为中的矛盾,而不是掩饰或是超越这些矛盾表现为超世俗符号,如神圣目标、广博目的或是自然法则。伟大的喜剧艺术的超越的时刻就是社会的时刻,它的理念是:即使我们想成为神,我们始终是人。伟大喜剧艺术家呈现给我们的喜剧化的社会,人们理性、友爱、欢乐,富有同情心并且愿意担当人类理性行动的风险。不用恳求神仙鬼怪,伟大的喜剧艺术激发人们理性的勇气,即相信人类作为人可以自己做到一切。


11. Select the sentence in the passage that suggests that great comic art can be characterized as optimistic about the ability of humans to act rationally.

正确答案:Without invoking gods
答案解析:注意不要因为倒数第二句中出现了很多类似“loving, joyful, compassionate”很开心的词汇,就选它;仔细分析主干我们知道,这句话的主语实际上是“The comic community”,但是题目问的是“great comicart”;而我们接着读就会幸运的发现下面说的这句话就是这帮人的乐观的感觉。“Grow out of”不要因为有“out”而有其他的想法,他就是“成长于……、产生,源自……”的意思,只有主语有长大的感觉的时候(比如小孩儿),才有负面的感觉,表示(由于长大而)遗弃……,e.g. She has grown out of her youth follies.


12. It can be inferred from the passage that the author admires great comic artists primarily for their

(A) ability to understand the frequently subtle differences between good and evil

(B) ability to reconcile the contradictions in human behavior

(C) ability to distinguish between rational and irrational behavior

(D) insistence on confronting the truth about the human condition

(E) insistence on condemning human faults and weaknesses

正确答案:D
答案解析:态度题,从文章主旨意在表现这帮人坚持去除伪善伪恶后的人类本性, D 最为贴切。


13. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the organization of the passage?

(A) A sequence of observations leading to a prediction

(B) A list of inferences drawn from facts stated at the beginning of the passage

(C) A series of assertions related to one general subject

(D) A statement of the major idea, followed by specific examples

(E) A succession of ideas moving from specific to general

正确答案:C
答案解析:写法题,结论解释型文章,排除法:A. Prediction 没出现;B. A list of 文章没有这种感觉;C. 正确答案;D. 没有例子;E. 感觉同上,没有具体到抽象

 

以上为第一个GRE阅读36套Exercise.

 

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