### 2019年12月28日大陆地区GRE考试真题回顾

2019年12月28日大陆地区GRE考试真题回顾2019年12月28日大陆地区GRE考试真题回顾——数学部分数学1有两个三角形周长分别为52和32，比较这两个三角形的面积大小数学2k是正整数，问149的2k次方和14...

2019年12月28日大陆地区GRE考试真题回顾

2019年12月28日大陆地区GRE考试真题回顾——数学部分

k是正整数，问149的2k次方和143的2k次方的个位数比较大小

H={1, 2, 3, 4}，G={1, 3, 5, 7}，问点(h, g)的个数

10个正整数，和为101，没有任何一个数超过另一个数的两倍，问：这10个数里面最大的数是多少

100到999之间 有多少个3位数每个位数的sum是4的

32^19-32 unit digit 是啥

Someone needs to import a number of sets of bottles. Each bottle charges \$12.04, and it also charges \$4.8 for shipping each set (not single bottle but a whole set). The standard deviation of numbers of bottles in each set is 1.5. What is the standard deviation of the prices for each set?

2019年12月28日大陆地区GRE考试真题回顾——填空部分

Give a computer (i)_____ task—winning at chess, say, or predicting the weather—and the machine bests humans nearly every time. Yet when problems are (ii)_____, or require combining varied sources, computers are (iii)_____ human intelligence.

 A. a well-defined D. nuanced G. no match for B. a random E. inconsequential H. unyielding to C. an open-ended F. solvable I. able to dwarf

Historian Barbara Alpern Engel’s task in writing a book about women in Russia must have been a (i)_____ one, because the (ii)_____ the Russian empire’s peoples meant that Russian women could never be treated as a homogeneous group.

 A. motivating D. unity among B. boring E. disinterest in C. daunting F. diversity of

One of the peculiarities of humans is that we irrationally gravitate to the predictable and avoid risk, whatever the reasons for this _____, it is hardly a sound basis for dealing with complex, long-term problems.

A. eccentricity

B. predilection

C. vacillation

D. proclivity

E. wavering

F. cowardice

Part of what currently makes it so (i)_____ to arrive at a scientific understanding of the living world is that while technological advances have produced a cascade of data—from detailed genome sequence to the sophisticated satellite imagery that documents the planet’s ecosystems—our ability to (ii)_____ these data still lags far behind their (iii)_____.

 A. frustrating D. gather G. acquisition B. intriguing E. apprehend H. interpretation C. challenging F. dispute I. implementation

In establishing that the dust she had observed constitutes two percent of the mass in the quadrant, the astronomer showed that the dust’s extreme visual prominence _____ its relatively minor contribution to the total mass of the region.

A. belies

C. highlights

D. nullifies

E. disproves

F. accentuates

Despite the scathing precision with which she satirizes the lives of social aspirants and moneyed folk, the writer appears to (i)_____ being part of the world she presents as so (ii)_____.

 A. abhor D. unattainable B. relish E. insufferable C. evoke F. enchanting

The medical professor’s thesis—hardly new, but rarely _____ by a faculty members of his distinction—is that patients are more than the sum of their symptoms and systems.

A. discounted

B. ignored

C. subverted

D. underestimated

E. espoused

Tompkinson’s prior donations to the university, while very generous, failed to _____ the magnitude of her latest gift.

A. compensate for

B. portend

C. clarify

D. predict

E. offset

F. undermine

Criticized for decades of overproduction in their signature line of derivative goods, Rectangle Record has satiated the market with a _____ of repackaged old CDs, which interferes with its ability to innovate and produce new albums.

A. dearth

B. glut

C. deficiency

D. surfeit

E. abundance

F. profusion

The genius of the scientific method is that it (i)_____ the dictum of Aristotle that the goal of science is knowledge of the ultimate cause of things. True science, we now know, advances human knowledge by (ii)_____ ultimate causes and focusing instead on the testing of empirical hypotheses.

 A. qualifies D. ignoring B. jettisons E. predicting C. affirms F. confirming

The nineteenth-century legislator Robert Barnwell Rhett was known for using language so intemperate that even in an era of considerable political ______, it came almost to occupy a category of its own.

A. malfeasance

B. upheaval

C. hypocrisy

D. invective

E. retrenchment

For all the _____ the new CEO has received from the press recently, her staff have a

decidedly less rosy view of her.

A. encomiums

B. tributes

C. evaluations

D. critiques

E. attention

F. publicity

Although scientific progress leads to constant revision of ideas, one observation that has remained _____ over the years is that there are a lot of insects in the world: some 950,000 species have been identified.

A. robust

B. significant

C. strong

D. perplexing

E. confounding

F. obscure

The paleontologist examined the problem afresh, believing that the accepted classification _____ the essential continuity of the specimens by making specious distinctions among them.

A. disproved

B. belied

C. conflated

D. divulged

E. relaxed

Some academic criticism of popular novels has been (i)_____ in character, being based on the assumption that the wider the appeal, the more (ii)_____ the novel.

 A. rigorous D. undesirable B. exculpatory E. accomplished C. elitist F. comprehensible

Throughout much of the twentieth century, common scientific sense seemed to dictate that animals could not make a choice based on rational or aesthetic criteria. Such choices were (i)_____ the mental capacity of humans. Scientists who (ii)_____ this animal-human cognitive division were often accused of anthropomorphism.

 A. reserved for D. accepted B. inconsistent with E. transgressed C. similar to F. exacerbated

Several studies (i)_____ the assumption that paper cups, because they were made of natural products, were more environmentally (ii)_____ than cups made of plastic (polystyrene). Indeed, these studies indicated that the environmental (iii)_____ of producing and recycling paper cups were similar to, if not more than, those related to the production, disposal, and recycling of polystyrene cups.

 A. corroborated D. friendly G. benefits B. exploited E. hazardous H. costs C. dispelled F. predictable I. opportunities

While the Prime Minister’s long-standing reputation for (i)____ practical power may (ii)_____ his recently stated willingness to devolve real power to regional assemblies and local governments, it certainly does not (iii)_____ his doing it.

 A. centralizing D. render inevitable G. require B. overseeing E. be based on H. allow C. exploring F. raise doubts about I. preclude

According to Dr. Edith Widder, measuring the level of pollutants in sediment provides a more accurate and robust indication of an estuary's health than does measuring the level of chemicals in the water, since pollution in water is (i)_____, but pollution in sediment is (ii)_____.

 A. declining D. significant B. manageable E. persistent C. transient F. detectable

Proponents of international regulation of environmental issues have always struggled against scientific uncertainty and economic hostility, two obstacles which, form a political standpoint, often have been closely related, as economic hostility toward environmental regulation for economic reasons have (i)_____ the considerable uncertainty underlying most environmental challenges to (ii)_____ of environmental regulation.

 A. resolved D. exaggerate the efficacy B. gainsaid E. downplay the legitimacy C. exploited F. question the fallibility

Hyana Kusiemko and her colleagues speculate that the (i)_____ support among low-income works for increases in the minimum wage is a form of last-place aversion: people who are in a marginally better position than the worst off seek to (ii)_____ to distinguish themselves from those in last place.

 A. unwavering D. disavow their willingness B. vociferous E. retain their ability C. tepid F. dissemble their need

Patterson thought the waste leaking into the river was _____ situation: by contrast, judging from their silence on the matter, the owners of the factory felt the problem did not require immediate action.

A. a lingering

B. a convoluted

C. a pressing

D. an enervating

E. an exigent

F. an intricate

2019年12月28日大陆地区GRE考试真题回顾——阅读部分

Sportfishers introduced the Zander, a type of perch, to Britain’s rivers and canals in the 1970s. Because zander eat large numbers of smaller fish, they have had a devastating effect on native fish populations. To protect the native fish, a government program removed a significant proportion of the zander from Britain’s waterways last year. Surprisingly, this year the loss of native fish to zander has been greater than before.

1.

Which of the following, if true, would most help to explain the greater effect of zander on the native fish population?

A. The climate in Britain is very similar to the climate in regions to which zander are native.

B. Most of the zander removed were fully grown, and fully grown zander eat large numbers of smaller zander.

C. Every year a large number of zander are caught by sportfisher in Britain’s waterway.

D. Previous government programs designed to remove nonnative species from Britain’s waterways have failed.

E. Zander are just one of several nonnative fish that prey on the other fish found in Britain’s waterway.

GRE阅读-正文

W.E.B. Du Bois’ exhibit of African American history and culture at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle attracted the attention of a world of sociological scholarship whose value his work challenged. Du Bois believed that Spencerian sociologists failed in their attempts to gain greater understanding of human deeds because their work examined not deeds but theories and because they gathered data not to affect social progress but merely to theorize. In his exhibit, Du Bois sought to present cultural artifacts that would shift the focus of sociology from the construction of vast generalizations to the observation of particular, living individual elements of society and the working contributions of individual people to a vast functioning social structure.

1.

The passage implies that Du Bois attributed which of the following beliefs to Spencerian sociologists?

A. Theorizing is important to the understanding of human actions

B. Vast generalizations have limited value.

C. Data gathering is a relatively unimportant part of sociological research.

D. Sociology should focus on the living elements of society rather than cultural artifacts.

E. Particulars are more important than universals.

For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

2.

The passage implies that Du Bois believed which of the following statements about sociology?

A. It should contribute to the betterment of society.

B. It should study what people actually do.

C. It should focus on how existing social structures determine individual behavior.

In February 1848 the people of Paris rose in revolt against the constitutional monarchy of Louis-Philippe. Despite the existence of excellent narrative accounts, the February Days, as this revolt is called, have been largely ignored by social historians of the past two decades. For each of the three other major insurrections in nineteenth-century Paris—July 1830, June 1848, and May 1871—there exists at least a sketch of participants’ backgrounds and an analysis, more or less rigorous, of the reasons for the occurrence of the uprisings. Only in the case of the February Revolution do we lack a useful description of participants that might characterize it in the light of what social history has taught us about the process of revolutionary mobilization.

Two reasons for this relative neglect seem obvious. First, the insurrection of February has been overshadowed by that of June. The February Revolution overthrew a regime, to be sure, but met with so little resistance that it failed to generate any real sense of historical drama. Its successor, on the other hand, appeared to pit key socioeconomic groups in a life-or-death struggle and was widely seen by contemporary observers as marking a historical departure. Through their interpretations, which exert a continuing influence on our understanding of the revolutionary process, the impact of the events of June has been magnified, while, as an unintended consequence, the significance of the February insurrection has been diminished. Second, like other “successful” insurrections, the events of February failed to generate the most desirable kinds of historical records. Although the June insurrection of 1848 and the Paris Commune of 1871 would be considered watersheds of nineteenth-century French history by any standard, they also present the social historian with a signal advantage: these failed insurrections created a mass of invaluable documentation as a by-product of authorities’ efforts to search out and punish the rebels.

Quite different is the outcome of successful insurrections like those of July 1830 and February 1848. Experiences are retold, but participants typically resume their daily routines without ever recording their activities. Those who played salient roles may become the objects of highly embellished verbal accounts or in rare cases, of celebratory articles in contemporary periodicals. And it is true that the publicly acknowledged leaders of an uprising frequently write memoirs. However, such documents are likely to be highly unreliable, unrepresentative, and unsystematically preserved, especially when compared to the detailed judicial dossiers prepared for everyone arrested following a failed insurrection.

As a consequence, it may prove difficult or impossible to establish for a successful revolution a comprehensive and trustworthy picture of those who participated, or to answer even the most basic questions one might pose concerning the social origins of the insurgents.

1.

With which of the following statements regarding revolution would the author most likely agree?

A. Revolutionary mobilization requires a great deal of planning by people representing disaffected groups.

B. The objectives of the February Revolution were more radical than those of the June insurrection.

C. The process of revolutionary mobilization varies greatly from one revolution to the next.

D. Revolutions vary greatly in the usefulness of the historical records that they produce.

E. As knowledge of the February Revolution increases, chances are good that its importance will eventually eclipse that of the June insurrection.

2.

Which of the following is the most logical objection to the claim made in the last paragraph?

A. The February Revolution of 1848 is much less significant than the July insurrection of 1830.

B. The backgrounds and motivations of participants in the July insurrection of 1830 have been identified, however cursorily.

C. Even less is known about the July insurrection of 1830 than about the February Revolution of 1848.

D. Historical records made during the July insurrection of 1830 are less reliable than those made during the May insurrection of 1871.

E. The importance of the July insurrection of 1830 has been magnified at the expense of the significance of the February Revolution of 1848.

3.

The purpose of the second paragraph is to explain why

A. the people of Paris revolted in February 1848 against the rule of Louis-Philippe

B. there exist excellent narrative accounts of the February Days

C. the February Revolution met with little resistance

D. a useful description of the participants in the February Revolution is lacking

E. the February Revolution failed to generate any real sense of historical drama

4.

It can be inferred from the passage that the author considers which of the following essential for understanding a revolutionary mobilization?

A. a comprehensive theory of revolution that can be applied to the major insurrections of the nineteenth century

B. awareness of the events necessary for a revolution to be successful

C. access to narratives and memoirs written by eyewitnesses of a given revolution

D. the historical perspective provided by the passage of a considerable amount of time

E. knowledge of the socioeconomic backgrounds of a revolution’s participants

Whereas Carlos Bulosan aimed through fiction and personal testimony to advance both Filipino civil rights in the United States and the social transformation of the Philippines, Yen Le Espiritu has set herself the task of recovering life histories of Filipino Americans. Her work brings Filipino Americans of the generation following the 1934-1965 immigration hiatus graphically to life. A special strength is the representation of Filipino American women, who were scarce among immigrants before the 1934 American curb on Filipino immigration but composed more than half of the immigrants to America since liberalization in 1965. Espiritu’s subjects document their changing sense of Filipino identity in the United States, much as Bulosan did as a member of the first substantial wave of immigrants.

1.

According to the passage, both Bulosan and Espiritu do which of the following in their work?

A. consider generational differences in Filipino immigrants’ responses to life in the United States

B. attempt to make allowance for the demographic variations among Filipino immigrants to the United States

C. employ fiction in addition to documenting actual life histories of Filipino immigrants to the United States

D. represent how life in the United States has affected immigrants’ sense of Filipino identity

E. examine the effects on Filipinos in the United States of the 1934 American curb on Filipino immigration

2.

In the context in which it appears, “graphically” most nearly means

A. in writing

B. by means of drawing

C. impressionistically

D. diagrammatically

E. vividly

Some archaeologists speculate that the Americas might have been initially colonized between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. However, to support this theory it is necessary to explain the absence of generally accepted habitation sites for that time interval in what is now the United States. Australia, which has a smaller land area than the United States, has many such sites, supporting the generally accepted claim that the continent was colonized by humans at least 40,000 years ago. Australia is less densely populated (resulting in lower chances of discovering sites) and with its overall greater aridity would have presented conditions less favorable for hunter-gatherer occupation. Proportionally, at least as much land area has been lost from the coastal regions of Australia because of postglacial sea-level rise as in the United States, so any coastal archaeological record in Australia should have been depleted about as much as a coastal record in the United States. Since there are so many resource-rich rivers leading inland from the United States coastlines, it seems implausible that a growing population of humans would have confined itself to coasts for thousands of years. If inhabitants were present 25,000 years ago, the chances of their appearing in the archaeological record would seem to be greater than for Australia.

1.

The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?

A. presenting an objection to a claim

B. accounting for an apparent anomaly

C. outlining an alternative interpretation

D. correcting a particular misconception

E. questioning the validity of a comparison

2.

The author of the passage implies which of the following about 25,000 years ago?

A. The coastline of the region that is now the United States is longer than it was 40,000 years ago.

B. Rivers in what is now the United States were numerous than they are now.

C. Australia was less densely populated at that time than was the region that is now the United States.

D. Australia’s climate was significantly drier than it is now.

E. Global sea level was lower than it is now.

3.

The author of the passage implies that, in what is now the United States, archaeological evidence of inhabitation in the period from 40,000 to 25,000 years ago is lacking because that region

A. had its oldest habitation sites inundated following a postglacial rise in sea level.

B. has many resource-rich rivers that facilitated the dispersal of early inhabitants from an initial concentration in coastal areas.

C. was sparsely populated until about 25,000 years ago.

D. was colonized less than 25,000 years ago.

E. was inhabited only by hunter-gatherers until 25,000 years ago.

Although vastly popular during its time, much nineteenth-century women’s fiction in the United States went unread by the twentieth-century educated elite, who were taught to ignore it as didactic. However, American literature has a tradition of didacticism going back to its Puritan roots, shifting over time from sermons and poetic transcripts into novels, which proved to be perfect vehicles for conveying social values. In the nineteenth century, critics reviled Poe for neglecting to conclude his stories with pithy moral tags, while Longfellow was canonized for his didactic verse. Although rhetorical changes favoring the anti-didactic can be detected as nineteenth-century American transformed itself into a secular society, it was twentieth-century criticism, which placed aesthetic value above everything else, that had no place in its doctrine for the didacticism of others.

1.

Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?

A. It explains why the fiction mentioned in the first sentence was not popular in the twentieth century.

B. It assists in drawing a contrast between nineteenth-century and twentieth-century critics.

C. It provides an example of how twentieth – century readers were taught to ignore certain literature.

D. It questions the usefulness of a particular distinction between Poe and Longfellow made by critics.

E. It explains why Poe’s stories were more popular than Longfellow’s verse during the nineteenth century.

2.

In the context in which it appears, “conveying” most nearly means

A. carrying

B. transferring

C. granting

D. imparting

E. projecting

Animals live longer when their calorie intake is restricted to two-thirds of what is considered normal for their species. Animals so restricted are also generally healthier: most disease, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative illness, are forestalled. This phenomenon was long attributed to a simple slowing of metabolism (cells’ production of energy from fuel molecules) and consequent reproduction of its toxic by-products in response to less food. In fact, however, calorie restriction does not slow mammalian metabolism, and in yeast and worms, metabolism is both sped up and altered. Some scientists now theorize that calorie restriction is a biological stressor that, like natural food scarcity, induces a more complex defensive response, which in mammals includes changes in cellular defenses and repair.

1.

In the passage, the function of the highlighted portion (in yeast… and altered) is to

A. provide specific examples of organisms whose longevity does not increase in response to calorie restriction.

B. illustrate the probable means by which organisms placed on a calorie-restriction diet compensate for the reduction in available food-based level.

C. suggest the mechanism that is responsible for prolonging the life of organism whose calorie intake is significantly reduced.

D. give an example that explain why scientists’ thinking about the physiological effects of calorie restriction changed.

E. distinguish the different ways that mammalian and non-mammalian metabolisms respond to significant reductions in calorie intake

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

2.

The passage implies which of the following about the explanation mentioned in the highlighted text (This phenomenon… of metabolism)?

A. There are empirical findings that conflict with a presumption of the explanation.

B. The explanation predicts that the effect of calorie restriction on longevity will be the greatest for the species with the highest rate of metabolism.

C. The explanation predicts that the effects of calorie restriction will be uniformly positive.

Modern feminism has brought the reputation of the English writer Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) to something approaching the luster it deserves. While she enjoyed a certain celebrity among political radicals in the years just after her death, beginning in the nineteenth century her fame as a writer was hidden by disproportionate attention to her unconventional and, at the time, shocking personal life. When, therefore, Virginia Woolf wrote in 1925 of Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Men and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman that they felt like books so true that they seem now to contain nothing new in them, it was more a wishful than an accurate statement of the case. Wollstonecraft’s advances in moral thinking still have the power to shock position-takers of every party. The importance of gender even today is said to cut across other criteria for judging the conduct of men and women in society; Wollstonecraft, by contrast, believed that the shared morality of men and women should cut across all specifications of gender.

Wollstonecraft considered gender-based morality a relic of a barbarous age: part of that specialization of virtues by which every sexual feeling was expected to express itself as libertinism (in men) or false modesty (in women). In her view, there ought to be one criterion of morals for men and women alike, with both sexes cultivating the same virtues. Wollstonecraft rebelled against the copious sentimental literature of her own time, which she felt patronized women by insisting that it was to their advantage to affect chastity and modesty and that such virtues were their own reward.

In The Rights of Men, Wollstonecraft explores this double Bulosan standard from an unexpected angle. It was the first major response to Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), appearing less than a month after the impassioned defense of the deposed French monarchy. A defender of Burke called Wollstonecraft’s book an incoherent mass of treacherous candour, interested generosity, and, if not false, at least unnecessary accusation. But Wollstonecraft nonetheless managed to show how the traditionally feminine virtues of sentimental morality had been transferred by Burke to the aristocracy. Burke’s rhapsody on the queen of France (glittering like the morning star, full of life, and splendor, and joy) was, for Wollstonecraft, an example of the argument that beauty and instinct must often prevail over reason, the argument on which Burke took his stand as a defender of the old order. Like women, Burke thought, and from a similar greatness and delicacy in their nature, the aristocracy were understood at once to require deference and to solicit compassion. To Wollstonecraft, Burke’s argument linked sympathy and power in a dangerous alliance; she insisted that aristocrats do not deserve to be treated in the way that women have traditionally been treated any more than women themselves do.

1.

By quoting Burke’s defender in the highlighted phrase, the author of the passage most clearly succeeds in

A. providing a context for the political turbulence that unseated the French monarchy

B. emphasizing the way in which Wollstonecraft’s philosophy divided men and women

C. explaining why Wollstonecraft’s work has won more acceptance in the twentieth century than in the nineteenth

D. illustrating the nature of the appeal of Burkes argument

E. demonstrating the degree of hostility aroused by Wollstonecraft’s work

2.

The author of the passage quotes Burke’s description of the queen of France most probably in order to

A. provide a specific illustration of a position with which Wollstonecraft took issue

B. provide a specific example of Burke’s already archaic prose style

C. balance the quotation from Burkes anonymous defender

D. provide evidence of why Burkes position was more widely accepted than Wollstonecraft’s

E. provide an example of what Wollstonecraft perceived as Burke’s lack of political astuteness

3.

The passage suggests that which of the following is true concerning Virginia Woolf’s appraisal of A Vindication of the Rights of Men and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman?

A. Woolf was defending Wollstonecraft’s theories against attacks by nineteenth—century critics who concentrated only on Wollstonecraft’s notoriety.

B. Woolf favored the advances proposed by Wollstonecraft and mistakenly assumed that they had become self-evident in the twentieth century.

C. Woolf miscalculated the practical effects that the advances proposed by Wollstonecraft would have on society.

D. Woolf decried the loss in the twentieth-century of social progress made in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

E. Woolf was reacting against what she considered a lack of originality on Wollstonecraft’s part while calling for more sweeping changes than Wollstonecraft had proposed.

4.

The author of the passage suggests that modern feminism has treated the writings of Mary Wollstonecraft in which of the following ways?

A. Modern feminism has emphasized the progressive aspects of Wollstonecraft’s writings, while separating her work from her personal reputation.

B. Modern feminism has emphasized Wollstonecraft’s importance as a theorist, while deemphasizing her effect on the daily life of her times.

C. Modern feminism has worked toward a synthesis of Wollstonecraft’s philosophical advances with those of her contemporaries.

D. Modern feminism has embraced Wollstonecraft’s relative importance as a theorist, while rejecting certain elements of her theories of gender-based morality.

E. Modern feminism has equated Wollstonecraft’s ideas about the popular sentimentalization of women with her view of monarchist systems of government.

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