n, p, k都是整数，np=10k+3，问n可能是多少
Britain’s Queen Victoria, however (i)_____ she had been at the beginning of her reign, was politically much more (ii)_____ by the end of her time on the throne, as she resigned herself to the emergence of an increasing powerful electorate that prevented her from stubbornly insisting on getting her own way in matters of state.
The difficulty for nineteenth-century advocates of the claim that forests helped regulate climate was that their argument (i)_____ historical anecdote and observations. Proving the forest-climate link through verifiable and experimental scientific means rather than observation was (ii)_____ for these individuals, a situation that eventually led to the link (iii)_____ justifications for forest conservation.
So, perhaps the lesson is that rather than wanting their monarchy to (i)_____ its modernized Scandinavian counterparts, the British public cherishes it most when it is most (ii)_____.
While the current coffee craze was sparked by the emergence of flavorful, high-quality gourmet varieties, a slew of studies suggesting that concerns about coffee’s health effects may be _____ has nurtured the trend.
There has been (i)_____ elephant’s fabled mental capacities until recently, when these behavioral observations have begun to be (ii)____ by brain science. MRI scans of an elephant’s brain suggest that even relative to its overall size it has a large hippocampus, the component in the mammalian brain linked to memory and an important part of its limbic system, which is involved in precessing emotions.
To pay for the extra spending under this international poverty plan, each American would have to contribute less than the cost of buying a premium cup of coffee once a week. But financial aid is not (i)_____, and even if the funding recommended here were to (ii)_____, the grandest objectives may well remain unfulfilled. Nonetheless, carefully targeted aid can reward responsible governments, (iii)_____ individual initiative, and alleviate suffering. Many will think that’s worth of a cup of coffee.
Although one can adduce myriad of examples of ecosystem disruption by nonindigenous species, nevertheless most introduced species that survive in fact appear to have quite _____ effects on the ecosystem they have invaded.
The performer can be _____ in his comedy, but he is fundamentally a bighearted person who displays a core sweetness even at his most manic.
Every illness is a story, and when Annies began it was characterized by the kinds of _____ details that mean nothing until seen in hindsight.
Shirky argues that the Internet (i)_____ the needs for hierarchical structures and the sluggish organizations that (ii)_____ them: the Internet makes it possible to do things cheaply and efficiently on one’s own.
The amount of water flowing through United States streams has (i)_____ during this century, although without giving rise to more frequent floods, according to a new study by the United States Geological Survey. The country appears to be getting (ii)_____ even as its stream flow becomes less (iii)_____.
As Ellen Donkin explains, in eighteenth-century England, writing plays (i)_____ women. Even when the (ii)_____ meant that playwriting did not bring personal fame, the work nevertheless enabled them to present their own views to the public and offered the possibility of acquiring capital.
Gravitational waves—ripples in the geometry of space-time—are analogous to electromagnetic waves. The challenge in trying to observe these waves directly is that they are extremely weak. To make waves large enough to be (i)_____, the most (ii)_____ events in the universe are required: supernova explosions, the formation of black holes, or the collision of stars. Even so, the effects are (iii)_____. The geometry changes so little that a distance of several kilometers changes by less than the diameter of a proton.
One of the fundamental problems with learning mathematics is that while the number sense may be (i)_____, exact calculation requires cultural tools—symbols and algorithms—that are relatively new and must therefore be absorbed by areas of the brain designed for other purposes, which is easier when what we are learning (ii)_____ our built-in circuitry. With an understanding of it we can at least (iii)_____ our teaching methods by reflecting on the constraints it imposes.
Although movie critic Pauline Kael had a distaste for sycophancy, she also had a need for (i)_____; as a consequence of these competing feelings, she sent very (ii)_____ signals to friends and colleagues.
Many creative photographers were delighted to find in instant photography a mode that encouraged them to stop viewing photography as _____ and start viewing it as something they could handle with spontaneity, even derision.
The building affairs minister rightly recognizes that the current planning system—under which the government controls every aspect of construction—creates disastrous developments, but she is wrong to propose the opposite: the wholesale (i)_____ of the building market. Such a complete (ii)_____ of responsibility on the part of the state can hardly be in the public’s interest.
One of the peculiarities of humans is that we irrationally gravitate to the predictable and avoid risk, whatever the reasons for this _____, it is hardly a sound basis for dealing with complex, long-term problems.
Although the passenger pigeons, now extinct, were abundant in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America, archaeological studies at twelfth-century Cahokian sites in the present day United States examined household food trash and found that traces of passenger pigeon were quite rare. Given that the sites were close to a huge passenger pigeon roost documented by John James Audubon in the nineteenth century and that Cahokians consumed almost every other animal protein source available,the archaeologists conducting the studies concluded the passenger pigeon population had once been very limited before increasing dramatically in post-Columbian America. Other archaeologists have criticized those conclusions on the grounds that passenger pigeon bones would not be likely to be preserved. But all the archaeological projects found plenty of bird bones and even tiny bones from fish.
The author of the passage mentions “tiny bones from fish” primarily in order to
A. explain why traces of passenger pigeon are rare at Cahokian sites
B. support a claim about the wide variety of animal proteins in the Cahokian diet
C. provide evidence that confirms a theory about the extinction of the passenger pigeon
D. cast doubt on the conclusion reached by the archaeologists who conducted the studies discussed in the passage
E. counter an objection to an interpretation of the data obtained from Cahokian sites
Which of the following, if true, would most call into question the reasoning of “the archaeologists conducting the studies”?
A. Audubon was unable to correctly identify twelfth-century Cahokian sites
B. Audubon made his observations before passenger pigeon populations began to decline.
C. Passenger pigeons would have been attracted to household food trash
D. Archaeologist have found passenger pigeon remains among food waste at eighteenth-century human settlements
E. Passenger pigeons tended not to roost at the same sites for very many generations
A hoard of coins recently unearthed at an ancient Carthagian site bear an image of a face in profile with what appears to be a large mole on the cheek. Pointing out that an artist would be unlikely to include such a specific detail in a generalized portrayal of a face, some archaeologists have concluded that these coins portray an actual individual rather than an idealized type. However, this conclusion is unwarranted, since ______.
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
A. archaeologists cannot determine the actual identity of the individual portrayed just from the likeness that appears on the coins
B. it cannot be established with certainty that Carthagian artists were on the whole less skillful at portraying human face than artists of other cultures
C. none of the other designs of Carthagian coins that have been discovered features a face with a mole on it
D. in ancient times it was quite common for the money circulated in a city or country to include coins that originated in other jurisdictions.
E. the relatively soft metal used for Carthagian coin molds sometimes resulted in the production of series of coins with unintended bumps
The author of the passage implies which of the following about the release of water from glacial Lake Agassiz?
A. The notion that the release occurred has been challenged by more recent findings.
B. The release probably occurred much earlier than scientists have generally assumed.
C. The release would not have been sufficient to cause any temperature change in the North Atlantic.
D. The timing of the release is such that it probably did not trigger the onset of the Younger Dryas. E. The release was probably unrelated to the global warming trend that was taking place.
The passage is primarily concerned with
A. presenting evidence that undermines an explanation
B. explaining the nature of a climatological phenomenon
C. questioning the timing of a particular event
D. discussing a new explanation for a phenomenon
E. suggesting revisions to a popular theory
A critical consensus has emerged that Mary McCarthy will be remembered primarily as an essayist rather than as a novelist. But despite her formidable gifts as a polemical and discursive writer, and for all her reputation as an intellectual who sacrificed feeling to intelligence, what powers McCarthy’s best essays are her fictional rather than strictly intellectual gifts. She makes her points by telling stories or by way of vivid description, arresting images and subtle characterization. And for all her exacting sense of fact, McCarthy’s greatest contribution was to blur the distinctions between different kinds of prose writing: to show how fiction could be opened up to the thinking mind and how essays could profit from the techniques of fiction.
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
The author of the passage suggests that Mary McCarthy’s writing is characterized by
A. The use in her essays of devices more typical in works of fiction
B. A narrowing of the differences between narrative and expository prose
C. Careful attention to factual accuracy.
In the context in which it appears, “discursive” most nearly means
In the shallow end of Lake Tomwa, there are remains of numerous Jeffery pine trees that grew there during a lengthy drought. Researchers had believed that this drought lasted at least 150 years, but carbon dating reveals that pines were growing in the lake bed for only 120 years, from 1200 until 1320. Since the Jeffrey pines, which cannot survive in water, must have died at the end of the drought, the dating shows that the drought lasted less than 150 years.
The argument given relies on which of the following as an assumption?
A. No other species of tree started growing in the bed of Lake Tomwa after 1200.
B. No tree remains of any kind are present at the bottom of deeper parts of Lake Tomwa.
C. There was at least one tree in the lake bed that was alive for the entire period from 1200 to 1320.
D. There has not been a more recent drought that caused a drying up of the shallow end of the lake.
E. The shallow end of the lake had been dry for less than 30 years by the time Jeffrey pines started growing in the lake bed.
Biologists have long debated about whether egg production in birds is biologically highly costly, some theorizing that egg production is energetically or nutritionally demanding. Lack, however, suggested that clutch size—the number of eggs a bird lays per breeding cycle—is far below the potential limit of egg production. He suggested that clutch size had instead evolved in relation to the number of young that the parents could successfully rear. Subsequently, most studies focused on limitations operating during chick rearing, particularly among altricial species (species in which the parents feed their young in the nest). Lack later recognized that in precocial species (species in which young feed themselves), clutch size might be explained by different factors—the availability of food for egg-laying females, for example.
The passage suggests that biologists who say egg production in birds is biologically highly costly would agree that clutch size is determined primarily by
A. the nutritional and energy demands of egg production
B. the number of young that the parents can rear successfully
C. reproductive limitations operating during chick rearing
D. the availability of food for newly hatched chicks
E. the differences between altricial and precocial species
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
The passage suggests that Lack would agree with which of the following statements about factors affecting clutch size in birds?
A. In altricial species, clutch size is determined primarily by factors operating after eggs are laid.
B. In precocial species, clutch size is determined primarily by factors operating after eggs are laid.
C. In many bird species, clutch size generally remains well below the potential limit of egg production.
The manuscripts of the eight extant Latin tragedies identify the plays as the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae. Since nobody of that name is known, modern scholars believe the dramasto be the work of Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger, the well-known philosopher, orator and politician. Clearly the tragedies were written during Seneca’s lifetime: internal references to earlier poets, most notably Ovid, indicate that the dramas cannot have been composed prior to the second decade C.E., and the plays must have been written by 96C.E., when Quintilian quotes Medea, one of the tragedies.
It is remarkably, however, that Seneca himself never mentions the plays, since there are certain passages in them that could be used to illustrate points of his philosophy. There are at least two possible explanations. In the early Roman Empire, playwrights were sometimes exiled or executed for line constructed as directed against the emperor; thus, Seneca’s silence may be simple prudence. But if anyone could safely attach his name to dramas, surely it would be Seneca, the emperor’s tutor. And although Herrmann offers Seneca’s modesty as an explanation, Seneca is not averse to referring to his other writings. The evidence for equating Seneca with the author of the tragedies seems circumstantial.
The author mentions Medea primarily in order to
A. give an example of a play in which references to certain authors can be used to determine when the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae were composed
B. acknowledge the possibility that the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae may have been written by Quintilian rather than Seneca
C. suggest that certain of the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae may have been written near the end of Seneca’s lifetime
D. argue that Marci may have been one of the last of the eight plays in the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae to be written
E. indicate how the latest possible date for the time period during which the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragordiae were composed might be established
The author of the passage makes which of the following claims about the eight extant Latin tragedies?
A. There is only circumstantial evidence that the plays were all written by the same author.
B. Scholars have persistently attributed the plays to Seneca despite evidence that some of them may have been composed prior to his lifetime.
C. Evidence in the manuscripts of the plays identifies them as having been written by Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger.
D. The plays contain some lines that have been construed as being directed against the emperor.
E. The plays contain material that could illustrate certain aspects of Seneca’s philosophy.
The author of the passage would most likely agree that if Seneca had in fact written the tragedies, then Seneca probably would have
A. used the plays as platforms for his philosophical ideas
B. referred to the plays in some of his other writings
C. been in danger of exile or execution for certain line in the plays
D. avoided attaching his name to be the plays out of modesty
E. written the plays during the latter portion of his lifetime
The author implies which of the following about Seneca’s status as the emperor’s tutor?
A. It enabled Seneca to illustrate points of his philosophy to the leaders of the early Roman Empire.
B. It had more of an effect on Seneca’s career as a dramatist than it did on his career as a philosopher, orator, and politician.
C. It might have offered Seneca some protection from certain dangers playwrights typically faced.
D. It required Seneca to avoid making references to his various writings.
E. It required that Seneca take particular care that his writings could not be construed as being directed against the emperor.
Each of the following assertions consistent with Seneca’s authorship of the plays appears in the passage EXCEPT
A. There is no known author by the name to which the plays are attributed.
B. Playwrights in the early Roman Empire were politically vulnerable.
C. There are references in the play to Ovid.
D. There are references in the plays to Seneca’s philosophical works.
E. There are quotations from the plays in the works of Quintilian.
The relevance of the literary personality—a writer’s distinctive attitudes, concerns, and artistic choices—to the analysis of a literary work is being scrutinized by various schools of contemporary criticism. Deconstructionists view the literary personality, like the writer’s biographical personality, as irrelevant. The proper focus of literary analysis, they argue, is a work’s intertextuality( interrelationship with other texts), subtexts (unspoken, concealed, or repressed discourses), and metatexts (self-referential aspects), not a perception of a writer’s verbal and aesthetic “fingerprints.” New historicists also devalue the literary personality, since, in their emphasis on a work’s historical contexts, they credit a writer with only those insights and ideas that were generally available when the writer lived. However, to readers interested in literary detective work--say scholars of classical( Greek and Roman) literature who wish to reconstruct damaged texts or deduce a work’s authorship—the literary personality sometimes provides vital clues.
The passage is primarily concerned with
A. discussing attitudes toward a particular focus for literary analysis
B. describing the limitations of two contemporary approaches to literary analysis
C. pointing out the similarities among seemingly contrasting approaches to literary analysis
D. defending the resurgence of a particular focus for literary analysis
E. defining a set of related terms employed in literary criticism
For the following question, consider each of the choice separately and select all that apply.
It can be inferred from the passage that on the issue of how to analyze a literary work, the new historicists would most likely agree with the deconstructionists that
A. The writer’s insights and ideas should be understood in terms of the writer’s historical context.
B. The writer’s literary personality has little or no relevance.
C. The critic should primarily focus on intertextuality, subtexts and metatexts.
In the context in which it appears, “credit writer with” most nearly means
A. trust a writer with
B. applaud a writer for
C. believe a writer created
D. presume a writer had
E. accept a writer for
There have been numerous well-documented extinctions of indigenous species caused by the introduction of non-indigenous predators and pathogens. However, surprisingly few extinctions of indigenous species can be attributed to competition from introduced species. For example, during the past 400 years, 4,000 plant species have been introduced into North America, and these non-indigenous plants currently account for nearly 20 percent of North America’s plant species. Yet no evidence exists that any indigenous North American plant species became extinct as a result of competition from new species could mean that such extinctions take longer to occur than scientists initially believed or, alternatively, that extinctions are rarely caused by competition from non-indigenous species.
The passage is concerned primarily with
A. pointing out that a particular type of species extinction is rarely known to occur.
B. proposing a possible explanation for conflicting data about a particular type of species extinction.
C. resolving a debate about the frequency of a particular type of species extinction.
D. comparing two theories regarding possible causes of a particular type of species extinction.
E. refuting a proposed explanation for the increasingly rare occurrence of a particular type of species extinction.
The author introduces statistics about North America’s non-indigenous plant species primarily in order to
A. undermine a proposed explanation for the absence of any evidence for the occurrence of a particular phenomenon
B. contrast the effect of introduced plant species in North America with the effect that introduced animal species have had
C. suggest that North America’s indigenous plants are a domain in which there has been ample scope for a particular effect to have occurred
D. emphasize how much the ecology of North America has been affected over the past 400 years by the introduction of non-indigenous species
E. substantiate a claim about the overall effect that the introduction of non-indigenous species tends to have on indigenous populations