### 2019年11月30日大陆地区GRE真题机经回顾

2019年11月30日（大陆）GRE真题机经回顾数学部分数学1X和Y两个事件随机出现，一共出现7次，如果第一次出现X，那么下一次还出现X的概率是0.3，如果第一次出现Y，那么下一次还出现Y的概率是0.4。...

2019年11月30日（大陆）GRE真题机经回顾

X和Y两个事件随机出现，一共出现7次，如果第一次出现X，那么下一次还出现X的概率是0.3，如果第一次出现Y，那么下一次还出现Y的概率是0.4。如果第五次出现的是X，那么第七次出现的是X的概率是多少

k和p都是小于10的正整数 问有多少对(k,p)使得7k+7p是整数的平方

x和y都是整数，4≤x<7

2007的2007次方的十位数是多少

the number of tenths equal to 1.3，一个是the number of hundredths equal to 1.4比较大小

A. 0
B. 10
C. 12
D. 38
E. 60
F. 72

Goodin notes that people have (i)_____ cognitive capacities and that they therefore must consider some factors as (ii)_____ so as to be able to make decisions about other things.

 A. limited D. essential B. adaptable E. variable C. overlooked F. given

The sailors realized too late that winds had shifted the ice in such a way as to obstruct the ship’s path; this process had been so _____ that it was completed by the time they discovered the effect.

B. negligible

C. unpredictable

D. time-consuming

E. inconsequential

F. imperceptible

Even though his opponent is currently trying to portray him as a wild-eyed radical, voters will likely reject this charge because it does not _____ his moderate political record.

A. defer to

B. conform to

C. accede to

D. argue with

E. meddle with

F. square with

The Red Sea town of Aydhab presents scholars with _____: medieval records describe it as a major port for ships engaged in trade, yet today there is no trace of a viable harbor at the site.

A. an illusion

C. a chimera

D. a puzzle

E. an anachronism

F. a conundrum

The territory’s tradition of simple and low taxes, combined with a comparatively easygoing government, has earned it the _____ of its citizens and is widely seen as a main reason for its stunning rise to prosperity.

A. opprobrium

B. vituperation

C. attention

D. dismissal

E. approbation

The laser has been widely utilized in many industries such as the packaging industry, CD player manufacturing, and all sorts of commonplace articles; however, the (i)_____ of the laser doesn’t mean the laser can only be used in (ii)_____ ways.

 A. rare extermination D. assorted B. sporadic usage E. pedestrian C. everyday presence F. pointless

Fears that the recent sharp rise in oil prices is an indication that oil is running out appear to be (i)_____. The Middle East still contains vast oil supplies. Furthermore, even if new oil finds elsewhere have been (ii)_____ than in the past, substantial quantities of oil can be profitably stripped from tar and shale.

 A. contagious D. less frequent B. unfounded E. more accessible C. sagacious F. less publicized

For all the _____ the new CEO has received from the press recently, her staff have a

decidedly less rosy view of her.

A. encomiums

B. tributes

C. evaluations

D. critiques

E. attention

F. publicity

In its few decades of existence, the field of technology assessment has undergone large changes: its original high ambitions to predict consequences of technology have been _____ if not discarded.

A. deferred

B. subverted

C. abandoned

D. relinquished

E. tempered

F. modulated

Edited collections of scholarly essays generally tend to be somewhat uneven: they suffer from the _____ subject matter of the various essays, the lack of an overarching and consistent thesis, and the variable quantity of the contributions.

A. intriguing

B. heterogeneous

C. comprehensive

D. disparate

E. mediocre

F. engaging

For parents, the pleasure of letting children choose which book to read aloud together is not always _____: I well remembered my inner groans when my child would constantly pick my least favorite book from the shelf.

A. intangible

B. enduring

C. impalpable

D. unalloyed

E. ephemeral

F. unqualified

The benefits offered by information technology do not (i)_____ the need for individual reasoning; for example, Internet user should not allow the reasoning process to be (ii)_____ the mere accumulation raw data.

 A. disguise D. preceded by B. signal E. supplemented with C. diminish F. supplanted by

Few ideas are more _____ than the notion that cultures evolve in Darwin fashion;

many academics have begun writing about cultural evolution, but few treat the underlying Darwinian logic with the care it deserves.

A. abused

B. archaic

C. misused

D. outdated

E. divisive

F. derivative

Wilson is wont to emphasize the _____ of ants: how ants with full stomachs will regurgitate liquid food for those without, or how the old will fight so the young can survive.

A. beneficence

B. altruism

C. unpredictability

D. intelligence

E. fecundity

F. fertility

Interest in creating handheld computers is fueled by the desire to shrink the size of the electronic circuitry and to create exceptionally small mechanical systems. At this scale, however, physical (i)_____ poses unique challenges. Machining, positioning, and assembling parts by hand are easy at macroscopic scales but at minute scales they are far from (ii)_____.

 A. deterioration D. subtle B. manipulation E. inflexible C. durability F. routine

Aerial viewings of the gigantic stone horse attributed to the Native American Quechuan people fail to _____ the considerable artistry required to create the piece: the horse appears crudely constructed unless carefully examined from the ground.

A. reveal

B. justify

C. manifest

D. mitigate

E. diminish

F. undercut

The medical professor’s thesis—hardly new, but rarely _____ by a faculty members of his distinction—is that patients are more than the sum of their symptoms and systems.

A. discounted

B. ignored

C. subverted

D. underestimated

E. espoused

Notwithstanding a lack of _____, nineteenth-century anthologies such as Evert and George Duyckinck’s Cyclopaedia of American Literature represents serious attempts to collect the national writings up to that point as a way of establishing the viability of American letters.

A. bias

B. earnestness

C. rigor

D. ambition

E. ambiguity

The concept of increasing complexity of organisms has _____ history among evolutionary biologists, and yet many laypeople would unhesitatingly say that the pattern applies to the history of life on Earth.

A. an illustrious

B. a sordid

C. a curious

D. a contentious

E. a distinguished

F. a fraught

Industry-sponsored scientific research on chemical safety often (i)_____. Media reports regularly imply that industry support of scientific work is alone sufficient to (ii)_____ that research. Even though the source of funding has been determined to be a less significant cause of bias than other factors, industry support suffices, in the minds of many people, to (iii)_____ the credibility of scientific work.

 A. uncovers risks D. fund G. adopt B. elicits skepticism E. vindicate H. vitiate C. promotes innovation F. invalidate I. bolster

Though she had some exposure to great art and high culture, it must be said the ultra athletic Marion Carstairs remained throughout her life primarily (i)_____ mental and artistic pursuits. She was by nature (ii)______.

 A. a product of D. neither bookish nor cerebral B. indifferent to E. a model of delicacy and refinement C. obsessed with F. both didactic and argumentative

Recent research runs counter to the long-cherished notion that a small drop in body temperature during and after surgery is either _____ or actually protects the patient by slowing metabolism and reducing the body’s demand for blood and oxygen.

A. beneficial

B. immaterial

C. inconsequential

D. preventive

E. prophylactic

F. redundant

That Seiberg and Witten lack celebrity can be explained by the ______ nature of their pursuit: the mathematical exploration of four-dimensional space.

A. pedestrian

B. esoteric

C. compelling

D. global

E. unequivocal

1、Carla L. Peterson’s Doers of the Word (1997), a study of African American women speakers and writers from 1830-1880, is an important addition to scholarship on nineteenth-century African American women. Its scope resembles that of Frances Smith Fosters 1993 study, but its approach is quite different. For Foster, the Black women who came to literary voice in nineteenth-century America were claiming their rights as United States citizens, denying that anything should disqualify them from full membership in an enlightened national polity. Peterson sees these same women as having been fundamentally estranged from the nation by a dominant culture unsympathetic to Black women, and by a Black intelligentsia whose male view of race concerns left little room for Black female intellect.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

1.The passage indicates that Peterson identifies which of the following as obstacles faced by the women included in her study?

A. the attitudes of Black male intellectuals toward female intellectual work

B. the discriminatory attitudes faced by Black women in nineteenth-century America as a whole

C. disagreements among Black women speakers and writers themselves about the impact of the Black intelligentsia

2.It can be inferred that Peterson’s study and Fosters study are similar with respect to which of the following?

A. the writers that each takes up for examination

B. the degree to which each has influenced other scholars

C. the assumptions that each brings to nineteenth-century African American literature

D. their analysis of the nineteenth-century Black intelligentsia

E. their interpretation of nineteenth-century Americas dominant culture

Scientific consensus is that humans first began to have a warming effect on Earth’s climate within the past century, after coal-burning factories, power plants, and motor vehicles began releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in significant quantities into the air. However, evidence suggests that human agricultural activities may have had such an effect much earlier: concentrations of CO2 started rising about 8000 years ago, even though natural trends indicate they should have been dropping; methane levels rose similarly about 3,000 years later. Without these rises, however, current temperatures in northern parts of North America and Europe would be cooler by three to four degrees Celsius-enough to inhibit agriculture-and an ice age would probably have begun several thousand years ago in northeastern Canada.

1.Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?

A. It undermines the assumption that human activity has had a significant impact on Earth’s climate

B. It supports the assumption that Earth’s temperatures have risen appreciably over the past 100 years

C. It questions the assumption that greenhouse gases have had a warming effect on Earth's climate

D. It challenges the assumption that human activity began to affect Earth’s climate after the advent of industrialization

E. It supports the assumption that greenhouse gases are a direct by-product of industrial activities

2.The author mentions “natural trends” most likely in order to

A. propose a possible explanation for why current temperatures in North America and Europe are not as low as they might otherwise be

B. explain why levels of methane in Earth's atmosphere began to rise approximately 5,000 years ago

C. suggest that Earth’s climate would have become even warmer without the advent of human agricultural activities

D. identify factors that may have contributed to the rise of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere approximately 8,000 years ago and again some 3,000 years later

E. support the claim that human activity may have played a role in the rise in CO2 and methane levels in the atmosphere thousands of years ago

Astronomers who study planet formation once believed that comets—because they remain mostly in the distant Oort cloud, where temperatures are close to absolute zero—must be pristine relics of the material that formed the outer planets. The conceptual shift away from seeing comets as pristine relics began in the 1970s, when laboratory simulations revealed there was sufficient ultraviolet radiation reaching comets to darken their surfaces and there were sufficient cosmic rays to alter chemical bonds or even molecular structure near the surface. Nevertheless, astronomers still believed that when a comet approached the Sun—where they could study it—the Sun’s intense heat would remove the corrupted surface layer, exposing the interior. About the same time, though, scientists realized comets might contain decaying radioactive isotopes that could have warmed cometary interiors to temperatures that caused the interiors to evolve.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

1.According to the passage, astronomers recognize which of the following as being liable to cause changes to comets?

A. cosmic rays

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

2.According to the passage, astronomers’ belief that comets are pristine relics was

A. overturned by analysis of what happens when comets approach the Sun

B. supported by what observations revealed about the composition of the outer planets

C. based on consideration of the conditions that prevail where comets are located

Buell’s study of village sketches (a type of fiction popular in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s) provides a valuable summary of sketches that portray the community as homogeneous and fixed, but it ignores those by women writers, which typically depicted the diversity that increasingly characterized actual village communities at that time. These women’s geographical mobility was restricted (although women writers of the time were not uniformly circumscribed in this way), and their subject matter reflected this fact. Yet their texts were enriched by what Gilligan, writing in a different context, has called the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own. To varying degrees, the women’s sketches portray differences among community members: all stress differences among men and among women (particularly the latter) as well as differences between the sexes, and some also depict cultural diversity. These writers represent community as dynamic, as something that must be negotiated and renegotiated because of its members’ divergent histories, positions, expectations, and beliefs.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

1.According to the passage, village sketches written by women in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s typically reflected

A. the negotiations that characterized trade relationships between villages

B. the fact that these women did not often travel very far beyond their own village

C. the plurality of experiences and ideas that existed among the residents of a village

2.Select the sentence in the passage that contrasts how men and women depicted life in village communities.

3.The passage indicates that when Gilligan spoke of “the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own,” she

A. did not consider that ability to be a desirable psychological characteristic

B. did not believe that individuals differ greatly with respect to that ability

C. was implying that that ability enhances a sense of belonging in communities

D. was assuming that good writers are able to depict diverse characters

E. was not discussing the women who wrote village sketches

From the 1880s to the 1930s, the textile industry in Japan employed over half of all workers, most of them in the three major branches of silk reeling, cotton spinning, and weaving. Because the branches were highly diverse—in scale, skill requirements, and technology—historians traditionally have analyzed them separately. However, the workforces of all three were drawn primarily from the same population: young, mostly rural women aged 10 to 25. Noting this commonality, Hunter argues that a consideration of the three branches of production together is long overdue: examining elements common to the different branches of textile production may, she asserts, permit the identification of gender-based factors that may have influenced the operation of the Japanese female labor market as a whole.

1.Which of the following does the passage cite as an explanation for historians’ traditional analysis of the Japanese textile industry?

A. a common workforce population across all branches of textile manufacturing

B. similarities in the skills required for silk reeling, cotton spinning, and weaving

C. the importance of the textile industry to the Japanese economy as a whole

D. the high number of female factory workers employed within the textile industry

E. differences in the technology used in the three major branches of textile production

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

2.It can be inferred that Hunter regards which of the following to be a shortcoming of historians’ traditional analyses discussed in the passage?

A. their failure to examine factors common to the three different branches of Japanese textile production

B. their separation of the Japanese textile industry into three major branches based on differences in scale, skill requirements, and technology

C. their failure to acknowledge the contribution made by rural women to the different branches of the textile industry

Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.

1.The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?

A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.

B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.

C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority

D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region

E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

2.According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?

A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.

B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.

C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.

Much recent work has examined the claim that women encounter increasing obstacles relative to men as they move up the organizational ladder in business. This proposition, which we term the increasing-disadvantage model, is a core element of the popular glass ceiling metaphor. Despite continued widespread public acceptance of the glass ceiling idea and some consistent findings, most research to date has failed to support the increasing-disadvantage model. Indeed, several studies based on private-sector firms find that women’ s mobility prospects improve, rather than decline, as they climb upward in corporate hierarchies. In the public sector, researchers have found either no sex differences in mobility or a larger female disadvantage in lower grades.

Comparing cross-sectional national samples of workers, Baxter and Wright found no evidence in the United States, and only limited evidence in Sweden and Australia, that women’ s probability of being located in a higher versus a lower hierarchical level declined relative to men’ s at higher levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that the glass ceiling may be a myth. Women’ s scarcity in top organizational ranks may simply represent the cumulative effect of a constant-or even decreasing-disadvantage at successive hierarchical levels.

1.The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare two explanations for a recurring problem

B. summarize evidence relevant to a hypothesis

C. point out inconsistencies in a set of findings

D. account for the persistence of a point of view

E. reconsider the origins an ongoing issue

2.Based on the passage, which of the following is true of the “limited evidence” from Sweden and Australia?

A. It lends supports to the increasing-disadvantage model.

B. It correlates with findings on women’ s mobility from most other counties.

C. It suggests important cultural similarities between these countries.

D. It points to a phenomenon not widely recognized in these countries.

E. It helps explain the persistence of the glass ceiling.

3.The author of the passage and those accepting the “proposition” would most likely agree with which of the following?

A. Lower down on the organizational ladder, women tend to experience fewer disadvantages than they do at higher levels.

B. Women experience no more disadvantages in moving up the organizational ladder than do men.

C. The degree of disadvantage experiences by women remains constant as women move up the organizational ladder.

D. The obstacles to women’ s advancement vary significantly from country to country.

E. Women face some disadvantage at each stage of the organizational ladder.

Shoreland County recently purchased an area of wilderness land in the county to prevent it from being developed. In doing so, the county has forfeited all future property taxes on this land. Property taxes are assessed on market value, and if developed, the land would have contributed significantly to the county’s overall annual tax revenue. Because of the purchase, therefore, overall annual tax revenue will be lower than it would have been if development had occurred.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The money the county would have had to expend for services to residences or industry developed on the wilderness land would have exceeded the tax revenue from the developed land.

B. The market value of undeveloped properties in Shoreland County will not increase significantly in the foreseeable future.

C. The property taxes received by Shoreland County from the previous owners of the wilderness area were insignificant relative to the county’s overall annual tax revenue.

D. Land near the area bought by the county will not increase significantly in market value as a result of being near wilderness that is protected from development.

E. Shoreland County will not in the foreseeable future prevent the development of any other land in the county.

From 1910 to 1913, women suffragists in the United States organized annual parades—activity traditionally conducted by men to proclaim solidarity in some cause—not only as a public expression of suffragist solidarity but also a conscious transgression of the rules of social order: women’s very presence in the streets challenged traditional notions of femininity and restrictions on women’s conduct. While recognizing the parade’s rhetorical force as a vehicle for social change, scholars have recently begun to examine its drawbacks as a form of protest. Lumsden characterizes the American suffrage parade as a “double-edged sword”, arguing that women’s efforts to proclaim their solidarity left them open to patronizing commentary from press and public and to organized opposition from antisuffragists.

1.It can be inferred from the passage that men’s and women’s parades were similar in that both

A. were employed as rhetorical vehicles for social change

B. were regarded as violating contemporary standards of public decorum

C. made participants vulnerable to organized opposition

D. were largely ineffective as forms of protest

E. were intended by their participants as public declarations of solidarity

2.The passage suggests which of the following about proponents of the “rules of social order?”

A. They frowned upon public displays such as parades.

B. They had ulterior motives for objecting to women’s participation in suffrage parades.

C. They formed the core of the organized opposition to women suffrage.

D. They believed that it was unfeminine for women to march in suffrage parades.

E. They supported women’s rights to vote but disapprove some of the methods that suffragists employed to gain that right.

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