还有一题是27个正方体拼成的正方体 20个是红色的 7个蓝色的 问最多有几个面是红色的
数列：1, -2, 3, -4…，问前99个数字的和
从一个有31 member的集合里面找它的subset，其subset里面的元素个数为奇数，问the number of subset和2的16次方的大小
a＜b＜c＜d＜e，问a, b, c, d, e和a+1, b, c, d, e—1 的标准方差的大小关系
The media have constantly disparaged the governor’s competence and have found a public only too eager to applaud their _____.
Harper Lee’s narration in To Kill a Mockingbird is _____, mixing an adult’s and a child’s
perspective according to no logic other than the immediate exigencies of the plot.
A. a paradigm
B. a hodgepodge
C. a model
D. an innovation
E. a patchwork
F. an embarrassment
Slight but _____ variation in the timing of the star’s pulses led astronomers to deduce that it was being pulled backwards and forwards by three planets orbiting around it.
The longer the migratory route, the more fat migrating birds must accumulate as fuel for their flight. The gain in body mass would make birds obese by human standards, and should render them unable to fly, but this gain is (i)_____ premigratory (ii)_____ of digestive organs, inactive during migration, and by the (iii)_____ of the muscles that power the flight.
Flawed as it may be because it is conducted by subjective scientists, science itself has methods that help us _____ our biases and talk about objective reality with some validity.
Some of the areas of research covered in the collection have already attracted substantial scholarly interest, while others are more _____, hence requiring pioneering effort to map the territory and suggest productive avenues of inquiry.
The life of a secret agent is dangerous enough, but the life of a double agent is infinitely more ______: a single slip can send an agent crashing to destruction.
Though Fine leavens her work with humor and playfulness, she can be _______ writer, mincing no words in her judgements of other scientists’ work.
A. an acerbic
B. a provocative
C. an ingratiating
D. a demanding
E. an obsequious
F. a harsh
Historian Barbara Alpern Engel’s task in writing a book about women in Russia must have been a (i)_____ one, because the (ii)_____ the Russian empire’s peoples meant that Russian women could never be treated as a homogeneous group.
Contrary to popular myth, cockroaches are not especially tough or radiation resistant; indeed, they are pretty _____ as insects go.
Scientists should hope the faults in their theories will be _____ their peers since the refutation of one hypothesis can free its originator to develop a better one.
A. discerned by
B. disregarded by
C. discovered by
D. ignored by
E. opaque to
F. inspiring to
The paleontologist examined the problem afresh, believing that the accepted classification _____ the essential continuity of the specimens by making specious distinctions among them.
It is a paradox of the Victorians that they were both _____ and, through their empire, cosmopolitan.
After rising continuously over the summer, commodity prices fell, leaving analyst wondering whether the downward trend is a turning point or merely a _____ before demand picks up in the winter months.
For many years, Americans have had a love affair with ferryboats. Ferries are said to relieve our frayed nerves after we’ve stewed in bumper-to-bumper traffic, and conventional wisdom also says ferries (i)_____ congestion and air pollution by getting us out of cars. Unfortunately, this (ii)_____ notion recently has (iii)_____ several West Coast mayors, who have in consequence eagerly pursued the implementation of ferry service in their cities.
Until now, old snapshots and home movies faded and crumbled and were eventually (i)_____. Only a few precious mementos were preserved and passed along. But as photography moves into the digital realm, family albums and home videos see capable of (ii)_____: our capacity to store them is, for all practical purposes, approaching the infinite. Is such a transformation a good thing? The natural world teaches us that (iii)_____ are vital to ecological health. Does a similar principle apply to communal memory?
The concept of increasing complexity of organisms has _____ history among evolutionary biologists, and yet many laypeople would unhesitatingly say that the pattern applies to the history of life on Earth.
A. an illustrious
B. a sordid
C. a curious
D. a contentious
E. a distinguished
F. a fraught
Common sense tells me some people are more (i)_____ than others. The claim that these differences are (ii)_____, or that deep down, everybody acts only to further their own interests, (iii)_____ our everyday observations and deep-seated human practices of moral evaluation.
A minor criticism of the book, which is (i)_____ an understanding of the difficulty of doing direct research in Hong Kong’s, is that So relied on secondary sources to tell the story of Hong Kong’s political development, with previous histories of the period (ii)_____ his research. Given So’s (iii)_____ many of the players in Hong Kong politics, it is surprising that he did not use interviews and other forms of direct research to delve further into the motivations, strategies, and tactics of participants.
Among many historians a belief persists that Cotton Mather’s biographies of some of the settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (published 1702) are exercises in hagiography, endowing their subjects with saintly piety at the expense of historical accuracy. Yet modern studies have profited both from the breadth of information that Mather provides in, for example, his discussions of colonial medicineand from his critical observations of such leading figures as Governor John Winthrop. Mather’s wry humoras demonstrated by his detailed descriptions of events such as Winthrop’s efforts to prevent wood-stealingis overlooked by those charging Mather with presenting his subjects as extremely pious. The charge also obscures Mather’s concern with the settlers material, not just spiritual, prosperity. Further, this pejorative view underrates the biographies value as chronicles: Mather amassed all sorts of published and unpublished documents as sources, and his selection of key events shows a marked sensitivity to the nature of the colony’s development.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. argue against a theory universally accepted by historical researchers
B. call attention to an unusual approach to documenting a historical era
C. summarize research on a specific historical figure
D. counter a particular view about the work of a biographer
E. point out subtle differences among controversial historical reports
The author of the passage implies that an argument for the historical accuracy of Mather’s works is most strongly supported by which of the following?
A. surviving documents that corroborate Mather’s detailed descriptions of his subjects
B. Mather’s firsthand personal acquaintance with those about whom he wrote
C. Mather’s frank and straightforward accounts of the lives and times of people about whom he had conducted extensive research
D. Mather’s ability to detail important historical events in the religious context of which they were a part
E. the quantity and nature of the sources from which Mather obtained his information.
Information in the passage best supports which of the following statements about Mather’s biographies of the settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
A. Annals written by Mather and others were censored by later historians, thus detracting from their value as full and accurate accounts of the period.
B. Mather’s description of Governor Winthrop includes all of Winthrop’s shortcomings, such as a tendency toward levity at inappropriate times.
C. Mather’s descriptions of the Massachusetts Bay colonists were based primarily on firsthand experiences.
D. Many historians believe that Mather’s biographies are poor sources of historical information because biography is an inherently unreliable genre of historical writing.
E. Mather’s writings reflect an interest in the degree of economic success achieved by early Massachusetts Bay colonists.
Before feminist literary criticism emerged in the 1970s, the nineteenth-century United States writer Fanny Fern was regarded by most critics (when considered at all) as a prototype of weepy sentimentalism—a pious, insipid icon of conventional American culture. Feminist reclamations of Fern, by contrast, emphasize her nonsentimental qualities, particularly her sharply humorous social criticism. Most feminist scholars find it difficult to reconcile Fern’s sardonic social critiques with her effusive celebrations of many conventional values.Attempting to resolve this contradiction, Harris concludes that Fern employed flowery rhetoric strategically to disguise her subversive goals beneath apparent conventionality.However, Tompkins proposes an alternative view of sentimentality itself, suggesting that sentimental writing could serve radical, rather than only conservative ends by swaying readers emotionally, moving them to embrace social change.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
The passage suggests which of the following about the contradiction mentioned in the highlighted sentence?
A. It was not generally addressed by critics before the 1970s.
B. It is apparent in only a small number of Ferns writings.
C. It has troubled many feminist critics who study Fern.
It can be inferred from the passage that Tompkins would be most likely to agree with which of the following about the critics mentioned in the passage?
A. They accurately characterize the overall result Fern is aiming to achieve.
B. They are not as dismissive of Fern as some feminist critics have suggested.
C. They exaggerate the extent to which Fern intended her writing to serve a social purpose.
D. They wrongly assume that sentimental must be a pejorative term.
E. They fail to recognize the role that sentimental rhetoric plays to reader’s emotions.
Architectural morphology is the study of how shifting cultural and environmental conditions produce changes in an architectural form. When applied to the mission churches of New Mexico exemplifying seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Spanish colonial architecture in what is now the southwestern United States, architectural morphology reveals much about how Native American culture transformed the traditional European church architecture of the Spanish missionaries who hoped to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
Many studies of these mission churches have carefully documented the history and design of their unique architectural form, most attribute the churches’ radical departure from their sixteenth-century European predecessors to local climate and a less-mechanized building technology. Certainly, the limitations imposed by manual labor and the locally available materials of mud-brick and timber necessitated a divergence from the original European church model. However, the emergence of a church form suited to life in the Southwest was rooted in something more fundamental than material and technique. The new architecture resulted from cultural forces in both the Spanish colonial and indigenous Native American societies, each with competing ideas about form and space and different ways of conveying these ideas symbolically.
For example, the mission churches share certain spatial qualities with the indigenous kiva,a round, partly subterranean room used by many Southwest Native American communities for important rituals. Like the kiva it was intended to replace, the typical mission church had thick walls of adobe (sun-dried earth and straw), a beaten-earth floor, and one or two small windows. In deference to European custom, the ceilings of these churches were higher than those of the traditional kiva. However, with the limited lighting afforded by their few small windows, these churches still suggest the kiva's characteristically low, boxlike, earth-hugging interior. Thus, although pragmatic factors of construction may have contributed to the shape of the mission churches, as earlier studies suggest, the provision of a sacred space consistent with indigenous traditions may also have been an important consideration in their design.
The continued viability of the kiva itself in Spanish mission settlements has also been underestimated by historians. Freestanding kivas discovered in the ruins of European-style missionary communities have been explained by some historians as examples of “superposition”. Under this theory, Christian domination over indigenous faiths is dramatized by surrounding the kiva with Christian buildings. However, as James Ivey points out, such superposition was unlikely, since historical records indicate that most Spanish missionaries, arriving in the Southwest with little or no military support, wisely adopted a somewhat conciliatory attitude toward the use of the kiva at least initially. This fact, and the careful, solitary placement of the kiva in the center of the mission-complex courtyards, suggests an intention to highlight the importance of the kiva rather than to diminish it.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. correct some misinterpretations about the development of an architectural form
B. compare the traditional church architectures of two different cultures
C. examine the influence of a religious architectural style on secular buildings
D. explain the nature of the contrast between two different architectural styles
E. trace the European roots of an architectural style used in the United Stales
The passage suggests that the indicated historians regarded the placement of kivas in the midst of Christian buildings as which of the following?
A. exemplary of an arrangement of religious buildings typical of a kind of Native American architecture common prior to the arrival of the Spanish
B. largely responsible for the evolution of a distinctive Spanish mission architectural style
C. indicative of the Spanish missionaries’ desire to display an attitude of acceptance toward the kiva
D. symbolic of the controversy among Spanish missionaries in New Mexico regarding their treatment of the indigenous population
E. reflective of the Spanish missionary’s desire to diminish the kiva's importance
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument about the Spanish missionaries’ attitude toward the kiva?
A. The period of most intensive settlement by Spanish missionaries in the Southwest occurred before the period in which the mission churches of New Mexico were built.
B. There are no traces of kivas in Spanish mission settlements that were protected by a large military presence.
C. Little of the secular Spanish colonial architecture of the Southwest of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is predominantly European in style.
D. Some Spanish missionary communities of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were attached to Spanish military installations.
E. New Mexico contains by far the largest concentration of Spanish mission-style church architecture in the United States.
According to the passage, the building techniques prevailing in the Southwest during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries played a role in which of the following?
A. preventing missionaries in the Southwest from duplicating traditional European churches
B. influencing missionaries in the Southwest to incorporate a freestanding kiva into certain mission settlements
C. causing missionaries in the Southwest to limit the building of churches to New Mexico only
D. jeopardizing the viability of Spanish religious settlements throughout the Southwest
E. encouraging many missionaries in the Southwest to reexamine the continued viability of a highly ceremonial European religious tradition
In recent decades, scholars of American literature have skillfully revealed authors’ simultaneous accommodation and resistance to an increasingly commercialized, capitalized environment during the early nineteenth century. Historians of the period have not, however, fully exploited literary criticism, due to the disciplinary boundaries that mark contemporary academic research. Few historians have extensive training in critical theory and its specialized languages, and the sheer volume of work in early American history and literature challenges anyone who would master either field, much less both. Moreover, historians study people across the nation, but much literary scholarship called “American” actually examines works produced in northeastern states. And historians usually study the operations of capitalism in its details, while literary critics produce a generalized picture of literary commodification.
As discussed in the passage, the literary scholars and the historians differ in which of the following ways?
A. the amount of scholarship that they produce
B. the nature of their geographic focus
C. the extent to which they are critical of early capitalism
D. the extent to which they are interested in interdisciplinary study
E. The extent to which they restrict their focus to a particular time period
The passage cites which of the following as a reason for historians’ failure to fully exploit literary criticism?
A. historians’ overly thematic approach to literature
B. historians’ conservative notion of what constitutes literature
C. historian’s lack of interest in critical theory
D. the distinctive nature of much literary criticism
E. the ahistorical quality of much literary criticism
The crustaceans known as harpacticoids are very widespread in marine sediments, where they feed on microorganisms by ingesting the sediment particles to which the microorganisms adhere. Heavy metals, such as those found in industrial pollution, readily adhere to sediment particles. Harpacticoids are poisoned by heavy metals but are unaffected by most other pollutants. Therefore the concentration of harpacticoids in an area is a good indication of whether that marine environment contains heavy metals.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
A. Industrial pollution is the principal source of heavy metals in marine sediments.
B. Harpacticoids are the only crustaceans that feed on microorganisms by ingesting sediment particles.
C. Harpacticoids are more susceptible to poisoning by heavy metals than are other marine organisms.
D. The microorganisms that harpacticoids feed on are not killed by pollutants that are harmless to harpacticoids.
E. The microorganisms that harpacticoids feed on absorb heavy metals.
Writing about nineteenth-century women’s travel writing, Lila Harper notes that the four women she discussed used their own names, in contrast with the nineteenth-century female novelists who either published anonymously or used male pseudonyms. The novelists doubtlessly realized that they were breaking boundaries, whereas three of the four daring, solitary travelers espoused traditional values, eschewing radicalism and women’s movements. Whereas the female novelists criticized their society, the female travelers seemed content to leave society as it was while accomplishing their own liberation. In other words, they lived a contradiction. For the subjects of Harper’s study, solitude in both the private and public spheres prevailed—a solitude that conferred authority, hitherto a male prerogative, but that also precluded any collective action or female solidarity.
Which of the following best characterizes the “contradiction” that the author refers to?
A. The subjects of Harper’s study enjoyed solitude, and yet as travelers they were often among people.
B. Nineteenth-century travel writers used their own names, but nineteenth-century novelists used pseudonyms.
C. Women’s movements in the nineteenth-century were not very radical in comparison with those of the twentieth-century.
D. Nineteenth-century female novelists thought they were breaking boundaries, but it was the nineteenth-century women who traveled alone who were really doing so.
E. While traveling alone in the nineteenth-century was considered a radical act for a woman, the nineteenth-century solitary female travelers generally held conventional views.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
According to the passage, solitude had which of the following effects for the nineteenth century female travelers?
A. It conferred an authority typically enjoyed only by men.
B. It prevented formation of alliances with other women.
C. It relieved peer pressure to conform to traditional values.
Many researchers attribute the large number of physiological and behavioral similarities between birds and mammals, which have separate evolutionary histories, to endothermy (a thermoregulatory strategy whereby warm body temperature is maintained through internal heat sources). However, Farmer argues that parental care rather than endothermy is the key to understanding the similarities between mammals and birds. According to Farmer, while endothermy provides an explanation for a few similarities, such as the presence of body insulation, endothermy is just one characteristic among many related to parental care. The two purported advantages of endothermy that have been most frequently cited by researchers are an expanded range of inhabitable environments and the ability to sustain vigorous exercise. But metabolism has to increase substantially (at great energy cost) therefore conferring any significant thermoregulatory advantage in terms of the former, and there is no causal biological linkage to explain why endothermy would be essential to sustain exercise. Farmer argues instead that endothermy evolved as a means to control incubation temperature and that the ability to sustain exercise evolved separately, as a means to improve a parent’s ability to forage and provision its young.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. present a scientific theory that challenges a widely held theory
B. summarize the basis for a large body of scientific research
C. defend an established scientific theory in light of recent criticism
D. express skepticism about the results obtained by a particular researcher
E. compare the results of two particular scientific studies
Which of the following best characterizes the organization of the passage as a whole?
A. A position is noted, an alternative to that position is introduced, and then several points in support of the alternative are discussed.
B. A theory is discussed, an inconsistency within that theory is illustrated, and then a recommendation is made for further inquiry.
C. Certain research results are described, the significance of those results is explained, and then a novel interpretation of those results is summarized.
D. A question is posed, a possible answer to that question is suggested, and then evidence is provided to corroborate that answer.
E. A debate is outlined, contrasting viewpoints within the debate are discussed, and then one viewpoint is demonstrated to be correct.
According to the passage, Farmer concedes that endothermy provides an explanation for which of the following features shared by birds and mammals?
A. The ability to forage
B. The ability to sustain exercise
C. The instinct to care for offspring
D. Flexibility in habitat usage
E. Body insulation