1 pound tea can make 210 cups of tea and 1 pound coffee can make 40 cups of coffee. 餐厅卖的cups of coffee数量是cups of tea的12倍。What is the ratio of the pounds of tea to pounds of coffee
n个连续的整数，平均数是0，问 最大数和最小的和 与 所有数字的和 比较大小关系
Given our species’ increasing numbers and appetites—which are reflected in and compounded by global climate change—even (i)_____ species are likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. If we are to avoid a calamitous loss of biodiversity, according to Golbe, we cannot simply let nature take its course. Ongoing conservation management is (ii)_____, as we have, in a sense, become nature, and the responsibilities that come with the role cannot be (iii)_____.
Since the data we have analyzed are so _____, it would be hazardous to draw a definite conclusion.
8. The author advocates a diminished role for philosophy, aiming to show that many of the questions traditionally debated among philosophers can be ______ the realm of scientific inquiry.
A. ceded to
B. inferred from
C. relevant to
D. initiated by
E. germane to
F. left to
While in their consideration of the unique way athletics and academics are combined in United States universities, Markovits and Rensmann do not (i)_____ Gumbrecht’s idealizing vision of the compatibility of college athletics with the intellectual missions of institutions of higher learning, neither do they regard college athletics as (ii)_____: they believe that big-time sports have a rightful place in university life.
The company president’s reputation for unflappability could easily be understood upon observing her (i)_____ performance during a particularly (ii)_____ board meeting.
It is true that science, and more particularly scientists, _____ cherished paradigms with great reluctance and that when they do, scientific revolutions may result.
The tenor of Me, as indicated by the title, tends to be _____, sometimes insufferably so.
To many newspapers readers now, this book published in 1953 is (i)_____. It is filled with references to some people whose ideas seemed (ii)_____ at that time, but are rarely viewed as (iii)_____ persons now.
The students’ _____ natures were in sharp contrast to the imperturbable dispositions of their teacher.
The laboratory maze has grown ever less _____ since it was first invented instead of hoping to lose a rodent in a labyrinth; today’s scientists design mazes to elicit a few simple, easily measured behaviors.
Gelles urges readers of Abigail Adams’ letters to consider their (i)_____: in Adams’ era women were denied a public persona separate from that of their husbands. That said, Gelles then (ii)_____ to promote Adams from a writer of private letters to a public figure, arguing that she was a significant force for change.
Often, developing new methods for scientific research demands a willingness to reach across disciplinary boundaries, something that is notoriously difficult to carry out. Therefore, even though interdisciplinarity is often proclaimed to be (i)______, there are many structural reasons why it remains (ii)______.
Changes made to ecosystem in order to achieve a goal, such as food production or flood control, often _____ significant unforeseen trade-offs between other important products and service the ecosystems provide.
The mood of the times is no longer one of (i)_____ over our scientific achievements. Doubts and worries beset technical and scientific specialist, as well as the public at large. I do not consider such worries (ii)_____, though they are often based on intuitive feeling rather than on strictly logical arguments.
Tagore had a sharply defined sense of the (i)_____ of scientific inquiry. The fact that science dealt in statistics and numbers, that its logic was probabilistic, meant that the domain of moral questions (ii)_____ it: moral questions, for Tagore, required certainties, not probabilities.
Flawed as it may be because it is conducted by subjective scientists, science itself has methods that help us _____ our biases and talk about objective reality with some validity.
The paleontologist examined the problem afresh, believing that the accepted classification _____ the essential continuity of the specimens by making specious distinctions among them.
Ralph Ellison was passionately interested in visual arts. He immersed himself in Harlem’s art scene in the 1930s, even apprenticing with sculptor Richmond Barthe for a time. Yet he was wary of projects aiming to provide a visual rendering of his novel Invisible Man. He reluctantly allowed Franklin Library to publish two illustrated versions of the novel but found the results disappointing and repeatedly rejected proposed film versions of the book. Despite his involvement in visual arts, Ellison insisted that only language could capture the complexity of American identity. This complexity consisted of the tension arising from the collision of the United States’ written ideals, as outlined in the founding documents, and the historical and contemporary experience molding the national consciousness.
It can be inferred that the author mentions Ellison’s apprenticeship with Richmond Barthe primarily in order to
A. show that Ellison drew upon some aspects of the visual arts in developing his ideas for Invisible Man
B. show that Ellison’s claim for the superiority of the language drive from his experience with other are forms
C. establish that Ellison had experience with an art form that interested many leading figures of the 1930s Harlem art scene
D. suggest that in the 1930s the Harlem art scene provided an environment in which artists were likely to work in several media
E. qualify Ellison’s reservations about visual renderings of his work by showing that he was not indifferent to visual art
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the “tension”?
A. It partly resulted from social injustices that Ellison worked to alleviate.
B. It came to Ellison’s attention partly as a result of his experience with proposed film versions of Invisible Man.
C. Ellison thought that it could not be adequately represented by sculpture.
D. Ellison believed that it arose from contradictions within the United States’ founding ideals.
E. Ellison felt that it was an issue that could not adequately be addressed through the depiction of fictional characters.
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.
The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.
Based on evidence from tree rings, pollen samples and other records, scientists have for a long time assumed that interglacials—warm interludes between ice ages—were as mild and uniform as the Holocene, the present interglacial, has been for all of its 8,000 to 10,000 years. But new research in Greenland has put this assumption into question.
Researchers on two teams, the Greenland Ice-Core Project (GRIP) and the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2), have analyzed two different cylinders of ice, each about two miles in depth, pulled up from the Greenland ice sheet. Such ice cores trap gases, bits of dust, and other chemicals that were present in the snow that fell over Greenland for thousands of years and then became compressed into ice. By studying these components, scientists have obtained a detailed archive of many aspects of climate, including air temperatures, snowfall, and concentrations of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere.
Findings from the upper sections of the cores have confirmed what scientists already knew climate during the last ice age fluctuated rapidly. But scientists were astonished by findings from the lower sections of the GRIP core, which provided a close look at an interglacial period other than our own, the Eemian interglacial, a period that lasted from 135,000 to 115,000 years ago. Data from GRIP seem to indicate that the Eemian climate swung at least as wildly as the climate of ice age periods.
Researchers’ clues to the Eemian climate come from measurements of the ratios of two slightly different types of oxygen, isotopes oxygen-16 and oxygen-18, preserved in the GRIP core. These ratios register the fluctuations of air temperatures over the seasons and years. When the air was warm, vapor containing the heavier isotope, oxygen-18, condensed and formed precipitation, in the form of snow, more readily than did vapor containing oxygen-16. Thus, snow that fell during warmer periods contains proportionally more oxygen-18 than snow deposited during cold spells. Evidence of rapid climate shifts was also drawn from other sources, such as measurements of amounts of dust and calcium ions in the ice layers during cold periods: winds were strong, causing calcium-rich dust from loess deposits, which are composed of loose surface sediment, to blow across the ice sheet. Thus, differing amounts of dust in the layers also indicate changing climatic conditions.
However, finds from the lower section of GISP 2 do not confirm those of GRIP. The wild climate swings shown by GRIP in the last interglacial are not seen in the GISP2 core. According to a GISP 2 scientist, the weight of flowing glacial ice above has stressed the lower sections of both cores. This may have deformed the lower ice, disrupting its annual layers and thereby causing the discrepancy between the records. Still, some climatologists believe GRIP’s record may be the more reliable of the two. It was drilled closer to a location called the ice divide, where stresses would have been lower, they say.
The passage is primarily concerned with
A. refuting certain scientific theories about Earth’s climatic history
B. outlining new findings concerning Earth’s climate during ice ages
C. discussing new research that may challenge a long-held scientific assumption about Earth’s climatic history
D. describing the climatic changes that occurred when Earth moved from an ice age into an interglacial period
E. reconciling conflicting evidence concerning climatic changes.
Which of the following describes research that is most clearly analogous to the testing done by GRIP scientists?
A. Scientists studying the formation of the Sahara desert measure the rate of topsoil erosion in the region
B. Scientists seeking to determine the age of a particular fossil measure the percentage of its carbon atoms that have decayed
C. Scientists researching vision in flies measure and compare the amounts of vitamin A found in the retinas of several fly species.
D. Scientists investigating the development of life on Earth measure and compare the amount of oxygen used by various organisms along the evolutionary scale.
E. Scientists plotting the fluctuations in rainfall in the early rain forests measure the presence of certain gases trapped in tree rings of older trees.
According to the passage, which of the following is the most accurate statement of what scientists believed, prior to the GRIP findings, about Earth’s climate?
A. Over the course of Earth’s history, interglacials have become progressively milder
B. Earth’s overall climate has been generally mild since the planet’s formation
C. During both interglacials and ice ages, Earth’s climate has fluctuated violently.
D. During ice ages, Earth’s climate has been highly variable, whereas during interglacials it has been mild and stable.
E. During interglacials, Earth’s climate has been highly variable, whereas during ice ages it has been uniformly cold and icy.
The passage suggests that which of the following is most likely to have been true of the oxygen-16 and oxygen-18 isotopes found in the lower sections of the GRIP core?
A. There was significantly more isotope oxygen-18 than isotope oxygen-16 in the ice layers.
B. There was significantly more isotope oxygen-16 than isotope oxygen-18 in the ice layers.
C. Ratios of isotopes oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 varied in the ice layers.
D. Layers containing isotope oxygen-18 placed stress on the layers containing isotope oxygen-16, possibly distorting them.
E. Isotope oxygen-16, being lighter, was located mainly in the upper layers, whereas oxygen-18 had settled into the lower layers.
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
Much recent work has examined the claim that women encounter increasing obstacles relative to men as they move up the organizational ladder in business. This proposition, which we term the increasing-disadvantage model, is a core element of the popular glass ceiling metaphor. Despite continued widespread public acceptance of the glass ceiling idea and some consistent findings, most research to date has failed to support the increasing-disadvantage model. Indeed, several studies based on private-sector firms find that women’ s mobility prospects improve, rather than decline, as they climb upward in corporate hierarchies. In the public sector, researchers have found either no sex differences in mobility or a larger female disadvantage in lower grades.
Comparing cross-sectional national samples of workers, Baxter and Wright found no evidence in the United States, and only limited evidence in Sweden and Australia, that women’ s probability of being located in a higher versus a lower hierarchical level declined relative to men’ s at higher levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that the glass ceiling may be a myth. Women’ s scarcity in top organizational ranks may simply represent the cumulative effect of a constant-or even decreasing-disadvantage at successive hierarchical levels.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare two explanations for a recurring problem
B. summarize evidence relevant to a hypothesis
C. point out inconsistencies in a set of findings
D. account for the persistence of a point of view
E. reconsider the origins an ongoing issue
Based on the passage, which of the following is true of the “limited evidence” from Sweden and Australia?
A. It lends supports to the increasing-disadvantage model.
B. It correlates with findings on women’ s mobility from most other counties.
C. It suggests important cultural similarities between these countries.
D. It points to a phenomenon not widely recognized in these countries.
E. It helps explain the persistence of the glass ceiling.
The author of the passage and those accepting the “proposition” would most likely agree with which of the following?
A. Lower down on the organizational ladder, women tend to experience fewer disadvantages than they do at higher levels.
B. Women experience no more disadvantages in moving up the organizational ladder than do men.
C. The degree of disadvantage experiences by women remains constant as women move up the organizational ladder.
D. The obstacles to women’ s advancement vary significantly from country to country.
E. Women face some disadvantage at each stage of the organizational ladder.
In the life of Charlotte Bronte(1857), the first and the most celebrated biography of novelist Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell promoted the long-persisting romantic view of Bronte as having no connection with the rest of English society at a time when industrialization was causing much turbulence, but as having sprung naturally, like so much purple heather, out of the English countryside. Gaskell also portrayed Bronte as irreproachably proper, incapable of “unladylike” feelings or dangerous views; this was at variance with the subversive spirit Matthew Arnold accurately discerned, albeit with distance, deep within Bronte’ s fiction. While correcting many of Gaskell’ s errors and omissions at last, even Winifred Gerin’ s Charlotte Bronte: The Evolution of Genius(1967) failed to discard Gaskell’ s viewpoint. Feminist have introduced new interpretations of Bronte’ s life, but it is primarily Juliet Barker who takes into account the larger world that impinged on that life-- the changing England in which old divisions of class and gender were under pressure.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. consider similarities in several studies of Charlotte Bronte’ s life
B. defend a particular view of Charlotte Bronte’ life
C. discuss a change in perspective on Charlotte Bronte’ s life
D. depict the social environment in which Charlotte Bronte lived
E. portray Charlotte Bronte as an early feminist writer
The passage suggest that Matthew Arnold disapproved of Charlotte Bronte’ s fiction insofar as he believed that it
A. overly romanticized the English countryside
B. contained dangerous ideas buried within it
C. perpetuated outmoded social distinctions
D. failed to represent industrialized society realistically
E. reflected an excessive concern with propriety
The passage suggest that Gaskell’ s biography of Charlotte Bronte advanced the idea that Bronte was
A. one of the most celebrated of the romantic novelist
B. an outspoken advocate of the social change
C. opposed to the industrialization of England
D. strongly influenced by the social upheaval of the times
E. chiefly the product of a rustic environment