In the last two hundreds years, the practice of archaeology has changed greatly, from digging up ancient artifacts for use by wealthy individuals as art objects to analyzing the detritus of everyday life in the laboratory, and thus from _____ to data collection.
D. treasure hunting
E. scientific discovery
Edited collections of scholarly essays generally tend to be somewhat uneven: they suffer from the _____ subject matter of the various essays, the lack of an overarching and consistent thesis, and the variable quantity of the contributions.
In Ramachandran’s opinion, it is perfectly acceptable to propose bold speculations about the brain, even if these speculations seem _____; as Ramachandran frequently remarks, science thrives on risky conjecture.
It would be imprecise to characterize her scholarship as (i)_____: though her etymological discussion is necessarily esoteric, there is nothing (ii)_____ about the conclusions she derives from it.
A. derivativeD. obscure
B. arcaneE. controversial
C. careless F. innovative
The title of her final and unfinished film, Escape, was _____: indeed while shooting it, she was preoccupied with thoughts of desertion.
The students’ _____ natures were in sharp contrast to the imperturbable dispositions of their teacher.
Gravitational waves—ripples in the geometry of space-time—are analogous to electromagnetic waves. The challenge in trying to observe these waves directly is that they are extremely weak. To make waves large enough to be (i)_____, the most (ii)_____ events in the universe are required: supernova explosions, the formation of black holes, or the collision of stars. Even so, the effects are (iii)_____. The geometry changes so little that a distance of several kilometers changes by less than the diameter of a proton.
A. detectableD. obviousG. masked
B. usableE. subtleH. disastrous
C. explicableF. violentI. minuscule
In a field of egotists, Bloomfield is _____, often praising her competitors and punctuating her correspondence with self-deprecating remarks.
Few studies have been published on ground-squirrel dispersal, and most of them have involved very small sample sizes, thus most statement regarding ground-squirrel dispersal must be considered _____.
Individuals, governments, and companies show ample ability to _____ themselves by setting goals based on current conditions and then blindly following them even when those conditions change drastically.
While normal floods resulting from usual monsoon rainfall are _____ the growth of crops, recently there has been an increase in the frequency of high-intensity floods that do not have such welcome effects.
A. conducive to
B. hindered by
C. devastating for
D. deleterious for
E. essential for
F. indispensable to
The automation of many of the functions performed at the factory, although initially inspiring _____ in many of the company’s employees, has had none of the deleterious effects forecast either within and beyond the organization.
The women s rights movement has been mostly _____ in the Middle East, but it is likely that activists will be newly galvanized by the political upheavals currently sweeping the region.
Industry-sponsored scientific research on chemical safety often (i)_____. Media reports regularly imply that industry support of scientific work is alone sufficient to (ii)_____ that research. Even though the source of funding has been determined to be a less significant cause of bias than other factors, industry support suffices, in the minds of many people, to (iii)_____ the credibility of scientific work.
A. uncovers risksD. fundG. adopt
B. elicits skepticismE. vindicateH. vitiate
C. promotes innovationF. invalidateI. bolster
The company president’s reputation for unflappability could easily be understood upon observing her (i)_____ performance during a particularly (ii)_____ board meeting.
A. superciliousD. productive
B. histrionicE. contentious
C. composedF. lifeless
Although the claim that no one knows what dark matter is remains _____, some scientists dispute the parallel assertion that dark matter has not been detected.
The students seeking undergraduate representation on the board of trustees viewed the impasse in their negotiations with the administration as (i)_____, since it promised to (ii)_____ the administration’s belief that students should take no part in running the university.
A. unfortunate D. undermine
B. inevitable E. fuel
C. unprecedented F. distort
Conventionally, the ultimate measure of a scientific work’s validity is how broadly and confidently its conclusions become accepted in the relevant field, which in turn (i)_____ the extent to which its findings are replicated and extended. However, establishing such validity, especially for a novel experimental finding, can take years, and what (ii)_____ replication or extension may be (iii)_____ for some time.
A. derives fromD. justifies G. evident
B. works againstE. impugns H. disputed
C. leads to F. constitutes I. touted
In a sharp blow to his reputation as (i)_____ leader, the evidence that the mayor has recently been involved in malfeasance seems to be (ii)_____.
A. a partisanD. fabricated
B. an unsuccessfulE. sound
C. an exemplaryF. dubious
Far from (i)_____ corporate influence on the academy, Taylor would like to see more of it; he is particularly (ii)_____ the idea of universities partnering with for-profit companies to sell online courses.
A. decryingD. enamored of
B. presumingE. judicious about
C. investigatingF. unnerved by
Berwick, middle-aged, soft-spoken, and _____, with a keen sense of how to use this apparent ordinariness to his advantage, began with a gripping story about how a firefighter saved himself during a forest fire by using a completely improbable tactic.
As it was published in 1935, Mules and Men, Zora Neale Hurston s landmark collection of folktales, may not have been the book that its author first had in mind. In this anthropological study, Hurston describes in detail the people who tell the stories, often even inserting herself into the storytelling scene. Evidently, however, Hurston had prepared another version, a manuscript that was recently discovered and published after having been forgotten since 1929. This version differs from Mules and Men in that it simply records stories, with no descriptive or interpretive information.
While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. Contemporary novelist and critic John Edgar Wideman has described Black literature as the history of a writing that sought to escape its frame, in other words, as the effort of Black writers to present the stories of Black people without having to have a mediating voice to explain the stories to a non-Black audience. In this, Hurston may have been ahead of her time.
Select the sentence that suggests a possible reason why Hurston wrote the version of Mules and Men that was published in 1935.
The passage suggests that Hurston may have done which of the following in preparing her original version?
A. Discussed her mode of presentation with her publisher before writing the first draft, in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.
B. Shortened her presentation of the stories to the bare minimum in order to be able to present more folklore material.
C. Put it aside for several decades in order to maximize its potential audience when it was published.
D. Reluctantly agreed to reshape it in order to take out various elements with which her publisher had been dissatisfied.
E. Chose not to include editorial commentary, in order to present the stories on their own terms.
Much recent work has examined the claim that women encounter increasing obstacles relative to men as they move up the organizational ladder in business. This proposition, which we term the increasing-disadvantage model, is a core element of the popular glass ceiling metaphor. Despite continued widespread public acceptance of the glass ceiling idea and some consistent findings, most research to date has failed to support the increasing-disadvantage model. Indeed, several studies based on private-sector firms find that women’ s mobility prospects improve, rather than decline, as they climb upward in corporate hierarchies. In the public sector, researchers have found either no sex differences in mobility or a larger female disadvantage in lower grades.
Comparing cross-sectional national samples of workers, Baxter and Wright found no evidence in the United States, and only limited evidence in Sweden and Australia, that women’ s probability of being located in a higher versus a lower hierarchical level declined relative to men’ s at higher levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that the glass ceiling may be a myth. Women’ s scarcity in top organizational ranks may simply represent the cumulative effect of a constant-or even decreasing-disadvantage at successive hierarchical levels.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare two explanations for a recurring problem
B. summarize evidence relevant to a hypothesis
C. point out inconsistencies in a set of findings
D. account for the persistence of a point of view
E. reconsider the origins an ongoing issue
Based on the passage, which of the following is true of the “limited evidence” from Sweden and Australia?
A. It lends supports to the increasing-disadvantage model.
B. It correlates with findings on women’ s mobility from most other counties.
C. It suggests important cultural similarities between these countries.
D. It points to a phenomenon not widely recognized in these countries.
E. It helps explain the persistence of the glass ceiling.
The author of the passage and those accepting the “proposition” would most likely agree with which of the following?
A. Lower down on the organizational ladder, women tend to experience fewer disadvantages than they do at higher levels.
B. Women experience no more disadvantages in moving up the organizational ladder than do men.
C. The degree of disadvantage experiences by women remains constant as women move up the organizational ladder.
D. The obstacles to women’ s advancement vary significantly from country to country.
E. Women face some disadvantage at each stage of the organizational ladder.
The waters east of Cape Hangklip were once the center of a lucrative wild-caught abalone fishery, but illegal fishing in the mid-1990s escalated to such levels that the recreational fishery was closed in 2003. When abalones did not rebound, commercial fishing was also banned. Continual declines in abalone were attributed to poaching, but an invasion by rock lobsters during the early 1990s probably intensified the trend. Rock lobsters prey on sea urchins, and increased rock lobster densities coincided with significant decreases in urchins. In that area, urchins feed largely by trapping drift kelp, and in doing so provide juvenile abalone with both protective shelter and nourishment. Without urchins’ presence, juvenile abalones are less likely to survive to adulthood.
According to the passage, since the early 1990s, sea urchins in the waters east of Cape Hangklip have
A. significantly changed their feeding habits
B. suffered increased predation from a certain species
C. experienced increased competition for kelp, their main source of nourishment
D. seen a sharp decline in the availability of kelp, due to environmental changes
E. rebounded as commercial fishing in the region has declined
According to the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the feeding behaviors of sea urchins
A. They change according to the type of food available in an area.
B. They are responsible for the decline of abalones in some regions.
C. They have a significant impact on the young of another species.
D. They make sea urchins more vulnerable to potential predators.
E. They result in marked decline in certain regions.
Which of the following statements about the Closing of the ‘‘recreational fishery’’ is supported by the passage?
A. It was a measure taken in response to the invasion of the area by rock lobsters.
B. It had unintended effects on the region’s population of sea urchins.
C. It was enacted after the banning of commercial fishing in the region.
D. It did not stem the decline of abalone in the region.
E. It had a short-lived effect on the area’s abalone population.
It can be inferred from the passage that the decline of abalones in the waters east of Cape Hangklip was probably due in part to
A. an increase in the area’s population of rock lobsters
B. illegal harvesting of adult abalones in the area
C. a change in the feeding behavior of sea urchins