Influenced by the view of some twentieth-century feminists that women’s position within the family is one of the central factors determining women’s social position, some historians have underestimated the significance of the woman suffrage movement. These historians contend that nineteenth-century suffragist was less radical and, hence, less important than, for example, the moral reform movement or domestic feminism—two nineteenth-century movements in which women struggled for more power and autonomy within the family. True, by emphasizing these struggles, such historians have broadened the conventional view of nineteenth-century feminism, but they do a historical disservice to suffragism. Nineteenth-century feminists and anti-feminist alike perceived the suffragists’ demand for enfranchisement as the most radical element in women’s protest, in part because suffragists were demanding power that was not based on the institution of the family, women’s traditional sphere. When evaluating nineteenth-century feminism as a social force, contemporary historians should consider the perceptions of actual participants in the historical events.
1. The author of the passage asserts that some twentieth-century feminists have influenced some historians view of the A. significance of the woman suffrage movement B. importance to society of the family as an institution C. degree to which feminism changed nineteenth-century society D. philosophical traditions on which contemporary feminism is based E. public response to domestic feminism in the nineteenth century.
2. The author of the passage suggests that which of the following was true of nineteenth-century feminists? A. Those who participated in the moral reform movement were motivated primarily by a desire to reconcile their private lives with their public positions. B. Those who advocated domestic feminism, although less visible than the suffragists, were in some ways the more radical of the two groups. C. Those who participated in the woman suffrage movement sought social roles for women that were not defined by women’s familial roles. D. Those who advocated domestic feminism regarded the gaining of more autonomy within the family as a step toward more participation in public life. E. Those who participated in the nineteenth-century moral reform movement stood midway between the positions of domestic feminism and suffragism.
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found thatthe urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff intogravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southernMay Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support largepopulations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface waterand the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that theconcentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided acentralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely oncontrolled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is lessuseful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use andcontrol in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.
1.The author of the passage implies which of the following about the politicalimportance of the type of urban water management system described in thepassage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed politicalcontrol over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the systembecame the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites usedthe system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources ofcentralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required politicalauthorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economicresources.
2.According to the passage, which of the following is true of the watermanagement systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailingpattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such asponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.
Cuts that need to be held closed in order to heal properly havegenerally been held closed with stitches. However, pressure to reducemedical costs is mounting. Consequently, it is likely that a newly developedadhesive will become the routine method of holding most types of cutsclosed. The new adhesive holds most types of cuts closed as well asstitches do, and the cost of applying it is comparable to that of closing cutswith stitches. But whereas stitches must generally be removed by medicalpersonnel after the cut has healed, the adhesive simply wears off. Thus, forany cut that the adhesive can hold closed as well as stitches can, it is moreeconomical to use the adhesive.
In the argument given, the two highlighted portions play which of the followingroles?
A. The first is a claim that the argument disputes; the second providesevidence against that disputed claim.
B. The first is a claim that is used as supporting evidence forthe main conclusion of the argument; the second is that main conclusion.
C. The first is a claim that is used as supporting evidence for the mainconclusion of the argument; the second is a conclusion that is drawn in orderto support that main conclusion.
D. The first introduces a practice about which the argumentmakes a prediction, the second is a conclusion based on that prediction.
E. The first introduces a practice about which the argument makes a prediction;the second is an assessment that is used to support that prediction.
What accounts for the low-lying, flat surface of Mars’s north?On Earth’s surface, higher- and lower-lying areas have different types ofcrust: one, thin and dense, is pulled toward Earth’s center more strongly bygravity, and the planet’s water naturally comes to sit over it, creatingoceans. The processes that generate this oceanic crust drive plate tectonics.
Is Mars’s north similarly characterized by a sort of crustdifferent from other areas of the planet? Some researchers do see signs oftectonic activity surrounding the northern basin that suggest that it wascreated through the formation of new crust, like ocean basins on Earth.However, McGill points to Northern bedrock structures that predate the featuressaid to mark the start of the tectonic process. McGill instead believes thatthrough some novel mechanism the ancient surface sank to its current depth as asingle unit. This would explain why features around the basin’s edge, whichwould have formed as the surface dropped, seem to be younger than structures atits floor.
The third possibility is that the northern lowlands result fromimpacts. Some researchers suggest they formed as a series of big overlappingimpact craters. Others arguing that the odds against such a pattern of impactsare large, postulate a single event-the impact of an object bigger than anyasteroid the solar system now contains.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. explore an analogy between aspects of the geology of Marsand the geology of Earth.
B. describe how a certain feature of Mars’s surface formed.
C. point out the effect that new data has had on a scientificinvestigation.
D. summarize potential explanations of a large-scalegeological feature.
E. present the rationale for a scientist’s theory and exposesome of its weakness.
2.Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about geologicalfeatures on Earth
A. the relative elevation of the lowest-lying regions of thecrust arises in part from forces generated within the planet.
B. the difference in elevation between the ocean basins andtheir surroundings is greater than the difference between Mars’s northern basinand its surroundings.
C. the formation of low-lying areas proceeds by a differentprocess than the one that created Mars’s northern basin.
D. the weight of the oceans does not affect the depth of theocean basins.
E. the proportions of the crust that is oceanic crust isincreasing.
3.As presented in the passage, McGill’s account of the formation of Mars’snorthern basin differs from the other mentioned in that it alone
A. explains the formation of certain northern bedrock features
B. does not specify the force that caused the northern basin tobe lower than its surroundings.
C. takes the northern basin to be a landform that is notanalogous to any found on Earth.
D. denies that features around the northern basin are theresult of tectonic activity.
E. attributes the creation of the northern lowlands toprocesses occurring within the planet.
Some archaeologists speculate that the Americas might have beeninitially colonized between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. However, to supportthis theory it is necessary to explain the absence of generally acceptedhabitation sites for that time interval in what is now the United States.Australia, which has a smaller land area than the United States, has many suchsites, supporting the generally accepted claim that the continent was colonizedby humans at least 40,000 years ago. Australia is less densely populated(resulting in lower chances of discovering sites) and with its overall greateraridity would have presented conditions less favorable for hunter-gathereroccupation. Proportionally, at least as much land area has been lost from thecoastal regions of Australia because of postglacial sea-level rise as in theUnited States, so any coastal archaeological record in Australia should havebeen depleted about as much as a coastal record in the United States. Sincethere are so many resource-rich rivers leading inland from the United Statescoastlines, it seems implausible that a growing population of humans would haveconfined itself to coasts for thousands of years. If inhabitants were present25,000 years ago, the chances of their appearing in the archaeological recordwould seem to be greater than for Australia.
1.The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?
A. presenting an objection to a claim
B. accounting for an apparent anomaly
C. outlining an alternative interpretation
D. correcting a particular misconception
E. questioning the validity of a comparison
2.The author of the passage implies which of the following about 25,000 yearsago?
A. The coastline of the region that is now the United States islonger than it was 40,000 years ago.
B. Rivers in what is now the United States were numerous thanthey are now.
C. Australia was less densely populated at that time than wasthe region that is now the United States.
D. Australia’s climate was significantly drier than it is now.
E. Global sea level was lower than it is now.
3.The author of the passage implies that, in what is now the United States,archaeological evidence of inhabitation in the period from 40,000 to 25,000years ago is lacking because that region
A. had its oldest habitation sites inundated following a postglacialrise in sea level.
B. has many resource-rich rivers that facilitated the dispersalof early inhabitants from an initial concentration in coastal areas.
C. was sparsely populated until about 25,000 years ago.
D. was colonized less than 25,000 years ago.
E. was inhabited only by hunter-gatherers until 25,000 yearsago.
W.E.B. Du Bois’ exhibit of African American history and cultureat the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle attracted the attention of aworld of sociological scholarship whose value his work challenged. Du Boisbelieved that Spencerian sociologists failed in their attempts to gain greaterunderstanding of human deeds because their work examined not deeds but theoriesand because they gathered data not to affect social progress but merely totheorize. In his exhibit, Du Bois sought to present cultural artifacts thatwould shift the focus of sociology from the construction of vastgeneralizations to the observation of particular, living individual elements ofsociety and the working contributions of individual people to a vastfunctioning social structure.
1.The passage implies that Du Bois attributed which of the following beliefs toSpencerian sociologists?
A. Theorizing is important to the understanding of human actions
B. Vast generalizations have limited value.
C. Data gathering is a relatively unimportant part ofsociological research.
D. Sociology should focus on the living elements of society rather thancultural artifacts.
E. Particulars are more important than universals.
2.The passage implies that Du Bois believed which of the following statementsabout sociology?
A. It should contribute to the betterment of society.
B. It should study what people actually do.
C. It should focus on how existing social structures determine individualbehavior.
3.It can be inferred from the passage that Du Bois believed which of thefollowing statements about the artifacts he included in his exhibit?
A. They tended to support an established view of AfricanAmerican history and culture.
B. They documented the contributions of particular AfricanAmericans to American social structure.
C. They were chosen to encourage Spencerian sociologists toform useful generalizations.