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令人头疼的GMAT逻辑题,如何像名侦探一样轻松推理出真相?

来源:原创作品 | 2019-12-0215

GMAT逻辑中的假设题目,是一种基础题型,主要判断依据是问题中含有关键的词如assume,assumption,或premise等。它考察的重点是在原论证中,从已有条件推到最终结论的链条上,隐藏着的其他必要...

GMAT逻辑中的假设题目,是一种基础题型,主要判断依据是问题中含有关键的词如assume,assumption,或premise等。它考察的重点是在原论证中,从已有条件推到最终结论的链条上,隐藏着的其他必要前提或条件。

比如:很多家长想要提高孩子的编程能力,所以就让孩子去学习编程课程。对于日常思维来说,上述事情非常合理。但是对于严密的逻辑思路来说,就会提出质疑:

为什么想要提高能力,就要去学习课程呢?学习课程与能力有什么关联呢?所以,这个论证中隐藏的一个被默认的前提就是:家长们认为学习课程可以提高能力。

只有这个条件加上,该论证才成立,如果该条件缺失或者取反,比如,家长们认为学习课程不能提高能力,该论证就会不成立。

所以,假设题关键就是找到原有论证的推理链,分析一下已有条件和已有结论,看看结论的成立还需要什么相关的非常必要的条件,一般是我们理所当然认为的、或需要作为前提保证的信息。

这也从侧面反映出,如果选项中出现原文已经提到的条件,这个选项是不能选的。当然,逻辑链的严密性会使得其他跟原有推理不相关的选项信息都被排除。


具体来看题目:

The interview is an essential part of a successful hiring program because, with it, job applicants who have personalities that are unsuited to the requirements of the job will be eliminated from consideration.

The argument above logically depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) A hiring program will be successful if it includes interviews.

(B) The interview is a more important part of a successful hiring program than is the development of a job description.

(C) Interviewers can accurately identify applicants whose personalitiesare unsuited to the requirements of the job.

(D) The only purpose of an interview is to evaluate whether job applicants' personalities are suited to the requirements of the job.

(E) The fit of job applicants' personalities to the requirements of the job was once the most important factor in making hiring decisions.

一定要先分析好原文推理,但是要尽可能简化且记住关键信息:

面试在成功招聘中很重要,因为面试可以把不符合职位需求个性的求职者筛掉。想问隐藏的默认条件,就需要知道为啥面试能筛掉的?选项需要围绕这个方向:

(A) A hiring program will be successful if it includes interviews. 包含面试就会成功招聘。没有给出我们想要的信息,并且过于极端。X

(B) The interview is a more important part of a successful hiring program than is thedevelopment of a job description.对于招聘来说,面试比工作描述更重要。出现于原文推理无关的信息。X

(C) Interviewers can accurately identify applicants whose personalities are unsuited to the requirements of the job.面试官可以准确的判断出与工作要求个性不符合的求职者。关联紧密。正确

(D) The only purpose of an interview is to evaluate whether job applicants' personalitiesare suited to the requirements of the job.面试的唯一目的就是评判求职者的个性是否符合工作需求。出现极端信息且不是我们需要的。X

(E) The fit of job applicants' personalities to the requirements of the job was once the most important factor in making hiring decisions.求职者的个性符合工作需求是招聘中最重要的因素。出现极端信息且不是我们需要的。X


再有:

Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat.However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise,whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumptionon which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will soondecrease.

(B) Importing either grain or meat will not result in a significantly higher percentage of Gortlanders' incomes being spent on food than is currently the case.

(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is increasing atroughly the same rate across all income levels.

(D) The per capita income of meat producers in Gortland is rising fasterthan the per capita income of grain producers.

(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.

先分析原文推理,尽可能简化:

G一直刚好能谷物和肉类自给自足。但随着人均收入靠近世界水平,人均消耗肉类也靠近世界水平,并且生产1单位肉要好几单位谷物。因此,人均收入持续上升,而国内谷物生产没有上升,G很快就要进口肉类或谷物了。

简化逻辑链:为啥吃肉多了,导致需求谷物多了,就一定要进口?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will soon decrease. 总谷物种植面积会很快下降。完全无厘头。X

(B) Importing either grain or meat will not result in a significantly higher percentage of Gortlanders' incomes being spent on food than is currently the case.进口后不会导致G的收入花在食物上的比例增加。首先不考虑进口后的后果,也跟食物占比无关。X

(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is increasing atroughly the same rate across allincome levels.G所有收入水平的人均消耗肉类的增长速度都一样。与是否要进口无关。X

(D) The per capita income of meat producers in Gortland is rising faster than the per capita income of grain producers. 肉类生产商的人均收入增长的要比谷物生产商的快。这个比较与是否要进口无关。X

(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.吃肉变多的人不会减少他们吃谷物的量。肉类要更多的谷物来生产,肉类肯定需求增加了,但如果谷物需求减少,也许还能自给自足,但如果谷物需求不变,那本国制造肯定不够了,就可能需要进口了。正确

从上题中也可以总结出,既然假设题是找必要前提,那么必要条件如果不成立,结论必然不成立,所以最后E选项也相当于对预备选项做取非验证,能够削弱结论的,就是正确的前提条件了。

来体会一下吧!看看你自己做题时,是否把题目的那条线梳理透了,就会在选择答案时能很快的判断有关还是无关。

3道补充练习同学们可以拿来练练手哦


补充练习1:

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive.Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equippedradios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radio sliving in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

(B) In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

(C) Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.

(D) In 1996 Verdlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

(E) The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.




补充练习2:

The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream,the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly,therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Which of the following is an assumption on which this argument depends?

(A)Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are richin vitamins and minerals.

(B)The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitaminsand minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers withcomparable diets.

(C)People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals donot typically have other health problems in addition to diminishedlung function.

(D)Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more thanany diet changes can.

(E)Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent thehelpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.


补充练习3:

With a record number of new companies starting up in Derderia and with previously established companies adding many jobs, a record number of new jobs were created last year in the Derderian economy. This year,previously established companies will not be adding as many new jobs overall as such companies added last year. Therefore, unless a record number of companies start up this year, Derderia will not break its record for new jobs created.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

(A) Each year, new companies starting up create more new jobs overall than do previously established companies.

(B) Companies established last year will not add a greater number of jobs overall this year than they did last year.

(C) This year, the new companies starting up will not provide substantially more jobs per company than did new companies last year.

(D) This year, the overall number of jobs created by previously established companies will be less than the overall number of jobs lost at those companies.

(E) The number of jobs created in the Derderian economy last year was substantially larger than the number of jobs lost last year.


三道练习题答案分别是A,E,C

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