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GMAT语法—比较结构令你头秃?那你因为你没有看过这篇文章

来源:原创作品 | 2019-09-20612

在GMAT考试中,比较结构是所有语法中最让人头疼的,因为比较结构中替代和省略的原则比较灵活,看到选项后更是一头雾水。今天我们智思GMAT考试培训教研组就比较结构的做题原则,来具体说一说。原...

在GMAT考试中,比较结构是所有语法中最让人头疼的,因为比较结构中替代和省略的原则比较灵活,看到选项后更是一头雾水。今天我们智思GMAT考试培训教研组就比较结构的做题原则,来具体说一说。

原则一:判断比较结构标志词,并明确其用法:

比如:less/fewer/many/much/greater…….than…结构出现,需要考生判断比较对象(确定是否可数)、确定恰当的修饰语(用more还是greater)

例题:

A long-term study of some 1,000 physicians indicates that the more coffee these doctors drank, the more they had a likelihood of coronary disease.

A.more they had a likelihood of coronary disease

B.more was their likelihood of having coronary disease

C.more they would have a likelihood to have coronary disease

D.greater was their likelihood of having coronary disease

E.greater was coronary disease likely

解析:likelihood只能用great来修饰,more则用来修饰likely所以排除ABCE;



原则二:比较对象的逻辑可比性

比如:看到比较结构的标志词,我们就要做出准确判断,尤其要注意like/unlike和一些暗含的比较结构标志词,例如whereas。

例题:

Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells arearrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern.

A.Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes

B.Whereas the tiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in mammals in parallel lines, birds have tubes that

C.Unlike mammals, where the tiny tubes for conveying nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, birds' tubes

D.Unlike mammals, in whom the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, the tubes in birds

E.Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes

解析:

A.correct;inmammals和inbirds对等。

B.the tiny tubes和birds不对等;thetiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells表达awkward。

C.mammals和tubes不对等;Where不能指代mammals;thetiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells表达awkward。

D.mammals和tubes不对等;inwhom关系代词错误。

E.the tiny tubes和birds不对等。Which指代cells,原句是thetiny tubes are arrayed in parallel lines,此句变成了bonecells are arrayed in parallel lines,改变句意。


原则三:明确替代和省略的原则和规律---相同(要确定和前面完全相同)则可以省,不同(包括比较对象和时态)则不可以省略。注意,我们说的是可以省,不是一定省哦!!!

替代的原则:

●不可数名词或者单数名词也能够that 代替,可数复数名词用those

●that, those是同类指代, 指代的同一类型。如果要指代前面出现的事物名词,要用it, them等同一指代。

省略的原则:

●通常情况下, 比较结构中,比较从句的谓语与主句相同的情况下, 可用do, did,does等助动词代替(省略动词),同时注意要根据句义来决定助动词的时态是否要和被比较部分的时态保持一致。

●在比较结构中, 如果比较从句中的主语和谓语部分与前面完全相同,且不属于比较对象的情况下,可以同时省略,只剩下比较的状语部分。

例题:

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A.than

B.than born

C.than they were

D.than there had been

E.than had been born

解析:

A.correct;than后面省略了babies were born to women;it指代theage of thirty。

B.under it修饰了born,逻辑意思荒谬。

C.根据比较的平行they指代babies,但仅补出they were使得were是助动词还是系动词,系动词的话,underit修饰了they,逻辑错误,助动词的话,theywere累赘。

D.had时态错误,比较双方是同时发生的,应该都用一般过去时;there无并列对象。

E.had时态错。

当然,除了这三大主要原则之外,我们还需要注意比较结构前后形式尽量一致性的优先原则,以及倍数表达法的习惯用法,同时要结合其他语法点灵活应用,关于倍数表达法,我们会在之后继续为同学们答疑解惑。


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