Percent of total score—33又1/3
Directions: You have 50 minutes to answer BOTH of the following questions. It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the questions posed, using appropriate psychological terminology.
1. Adapted from M. M. Duguid and J. A. Goncalo, Living Large: The Powerful Overestimate Their Own Height. In a study of power and self-image, participants were not told the true purpose of the study; instead, they believed they were participating in a business simulation. Researchers randomly assigned participants to a high-power (n = 44) or low-power (n = 44) condition. In the high-power condition, participants recalled a time when they had power over others, and in the low-power condition, they recalled a time when others had power over them. Participants were asked to adjust the height (in centimeters) of an electronic graphical image (an avatar) of themselves to reflect their personal appearance. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in participants’ perceptions of their own height across the two conditions. Participants in the high-power condition created taller self-images (mean = 6.0, standard deviation = 1.5) than participants in the low-power condition (mean = 4.0, standard deviation = 1.0).
Describe the levels of the independent variable.
Describe how the researchers measured the dependent variable.
Create a bar graph illustrating the results of the study. Correctly label each axis. x
Explain why the researchers can conclude that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
Explain what statistical significance means in the context of the study.
Explain why debriefing would be necessary in the study.
2. Abram recently graduated from high school and began his first year at a four-year university. Explain with an example how experiencing each of the following in the past may affect Abram’s ability to succeed in college.
Abram’s first year was very difficult, and he found that he was not as successful as he would have liked. Explain with an example how each of the following may help Abram be more successful in the future.