Percent of total score—33又1/3
Directions: You have 50 minutes to answer BOTH of the following questions. It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the questions posed,using appropriate psychological terminology.
1. In response to declining reading scores in local schools, John wrote an editorial suggesting that schools need to increase interest in reading books by providing students with incentives. Based on research showing a relation between use of incentives and student reading, he recommended providing a free pizza coupon for every ten books a student reads.
A. Explain how each of the following psychological concepts can be used to refute John’s argument.
B. Explain how schedules of reinforcement can be used to strengthen John’s plan.
C. Explain how each of the following psychological phenomena could influence a reader’s view of John’s argument.
2. A researcher compared the effectiveness of massed versus distributed practice in preparing for a memory test.Each of two groups memorized the definitions of 40 vocabulary words.
In group A, there were 30 participants who were all under twenty-five years of age. Participants in group A used the method of distributed practice, studying for 30 minutes on each of four evenings. They were tested on the fifth morning at 7:00 A.M. In group B, there were 30 participants who were all over sixty years of age.Participants in group B used the method of massed practice, studying only from 6:30 P.M. to 8:30 P.M. on the evening before the test. They were tested the next morning at 7:00 A.M.
All participants completed a recall test. The test measured how quickly participants recalled the definitions. The results showed that the mean difference between the distributed practice group and the massed practice group was statistically significant. The researcher provided a list of the names and test scores for each individual participant in a letter to all participants.
How might each of the following concepts affect the results of the study?