Directions: Show all your work. Indicate clearly the methods you use, because you will be scored on the correctness of your methods as well as on the accuracy and completeness of your results and explanations.
1.Robin works as a server in a small restaurant, where she can earn a tip (extra money) from each customer sheserves. The histogram below shows the distribution of her 60 tip amounts for one day of work.
(a) Write a few sentences to describe the distribution of tip amounts for the day shown.
(b) One of the tip amounts was $8. If the $8 tip had been $18, what effect would the increase have had on the following statistics? Justify your answers.
2. Product advertisers studied the effects of television ads on children’s choices for two new snacks. The advertisers used two 30-second television ads in an experiment. One ad was for a new sugary snack called Choco-Zuties, and the other ad was for a new healthy snack called Apple-Zuties.
For the experiment, 75 children were randomly assigned to one of three groups, A, B, or C. Each child individually watched a 30-minute television program that was interrupted for 5 minutes of advertising. The advertising was the same for each group with the following exceptions.
After the program, the children were offered a choice between the two snacks. The table below summarizes their choices.
(a) Do the data provide convincing statistical evidence that there is an association between type of ad and children’s choice of snack among all children similar to those who participated in the experiment?
(b) Write a few sentences describing the effect of each ad on children’s choice of snack.
3.Alzheimer’s disease results in a loss of cognitive ability beyond what is expected with typical aging. A localnewspaper published an article with the following headline.
The article reported that a study tracked the medical histories of 21,123 men and women for 23 years. The article stated that, for those who smoked at least two packs of cigarettes a day, the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease was 2.57 times the risk for those who did not smoke.
(a) Identify the explanatory and response variables in the study.
(b) Is the study described in the article an observational study or an experiment? Explain.
(c) Exercise status (regular weekly exercise versus no regular weekly exercise) was mentioned in the article as a possible confounding variable. Explain how exercise status could be a confounding variable in the study.
4.A company manufactures model rockets that require igniters to launch. Once an igniter is used to launch arocket, the igniter cannot be reused. Sometimes an igniter fails to operate correctly, and the rocket does notlaunch. The company estimates that the overall failure rate, defined as the percent of all igniters that fail tooperate correctly, is 15 percent.
A company engineer develops a new igniter, called the super igniter, with the intent of lowering the failure rate.To test the performance of the super igniters, the engineer uses the following process.
Step 1: One super igniter is selected at random and used in a rocket.
Step 2: If the rocket launches, another super igniter is selected at random and used in a rocket.
Step 2 is repeated until the process stops. The process stops when a super igniter fails to operate correctly or 32 super igniters have successfully launched rockets, whichever comes first. Assume that super igniter failures are independent.
(a) If the failure rate of the super igniters is 15 percent, what is the probability that the first 30 super igniters selected using the testing process successfully launch rockets?
(b) Given that the first 30 super igniters successfully launch rockets, what is the probability that the first failure occurs on the thirty-first or the thirty-second super igniter tested if the failure rate of the super igniters is 15 percent?
(c) Given that the first 30 super igniters successfully launch rockets, is it reasonable to believe that the failure rate of the super igniters is less than 15 percent? Explain.
5.A polling agency showed the following two statements to a random sample of 1,048 adults in the United States.
The order in which the statements were shown was randomly selected for each person in the sample. After reading the statements, each person was asked to choose the statement that was most consistent with his or her opinion. The results are shown in the table.
(b) One of the conditions for inference that was met is that the number who chose the economy statement and the number who did not choose the economy statement are both greater than 10. Explain why it is necessary to satisfy that condition.
(c) A suggestion was made to use a two-sample z-interval for a difference between proportions to investigate whether the difference in proportions between adults in the United States who would have chosen the environment statement and adults in the United States who would have chosen the economy statement is statistically significant. Is the two-sample z-interval for a difference between proportions an appropriate procedure to investigate the difference? Justify your answer.
SECTION II, Part B部分