来源:原创作品 | 2019-12-10126



Adaptation 适应性改变

Any inherited structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring is called an adaptation.

Evolution 进化

The gradual change in a species through adaptations over time is evolution.

Growth 生长

Growth results in an increase in the amount of living meterial and the formation of new structures.

Reproduction 繁殖

One of the most obvious of all the characteristics of life is reproduction, the production of offspring.

Species 物种

A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature.

Stimulus 刺激

Anything in an organism’s external or internal environment that causes the organism to react is a stimulus.

Dependent variable 因变量

The condition that any changes in it depend on changes made to the independent variable is called dependent variable.

Independent variable 自变量

The condition in an experiment that is tested is the independent variable.

Ecology 生态学

Ecology is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.

Ecosystem 生态系统

An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations in a biological community and the community’s abiotic factors.

Niche 小生境

A niche is all strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment.

Autotroph 自养生物

An organism that uses light energy or energy stored in chamical compounds to make energy-rich compounds is a producer, or autotroph.

Heterotroph 异养生物

An organism that cannot make its own food and feeds on other organisms is called a heterotroph.

Food chain 食物链

A food chain is a simple model that species use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. In a food chain, nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs and, eventually, to decomposers.

Limiting factor 限制因素

A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of an organisms.

Tolerance 耐受性

The ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors is known as tolerance.

Primary succesion 原生演替

The colonization if barren land by communities of organisms is called primary succesion. 

原生演替( primary succession ) 在完全没有植物的基础上,如海洋上隆起的新岛,火山的溶岩流,新形成的湖沼等地方因植物移居发生的演替

Carrying capacity 环境容量

The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support indefinitely is its carrying capacity.

Exponential growth 指数增长

Exponential growth means that as a populetion get larger, it also grows at a faster rate.

Biodiversity 生物多样性

Biodiversity refers to the variety of species in a specific area.

Endangered species 濒危物种

A species is considered to be an endangered species when its numbers become so low that extinctions is possible.

Extinction 灭绝

Extinction is the disappearance of a species when the last of its members dies.

Diffusion 扩散

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Organelle 细胞器

With the development of better mocroscopes, scientists observed that all cells contain small, specialized structures called organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplast and ribosme.

Nucleus 细胞核

The central membrane-bound organelle that manages or controls cellular functions is called the nucleus.

Plasma membrane 细胞质膜

Plasma membrane is the flexible boundary between the cell and its environment, to allow a steady supply of these nutrients to come into the cell no matter what the external conditions are.

Selective permeability 选择通透性

Selective permeability is a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out.


Phospholipid 磷脂

A phospholipid has a glyceral backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a pgosphate group.


Transport protein 转运蛋白

Transport proteins move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane.


Chloroplast 叶绿体

Chloroplasts are cell organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy.


Chlorophyll 叶绿素

Chlorophyll traps light energy and gives leaves and stems their green color.


Chromatin 染色质

The master set of directions for making proteins is contained in chromatin, which are strands of the genetic naterial, DNA.


Endoplasmic reticulum 内质网

One particular organelle in a eukaryotic cell, the endoplasmic reticulum, is the site of cullular chemical reactions.

Mitochondria 线粒体

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell.


Ribosome 核糖体

Ribosomes are the sites where the cell produces proteins according to the directions of DNA.

一切活细胞(真核细胞、原核细胞)中均有,它是进行蛋白质合成的重要细胞器,主要由RNA和蛋白质构成, 其惟一功能是按照mRNA的指令将氨基酸合成蛋白质多肽链,所以核糖体是细胞内蛋白质合成的分子机器。

Active transport 主动运输

Movement of materials through a membrane against a concentration gradient is called active transport and requires energy from the cell.


Passive transport 被动运输

Some molecules can pass through the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. The cell uses no energy to move these particles; therefore, this movement of particles across the membrane is classified as passive transport

简单扩散①沿浓度梯度(或电化学梯度)扩散;②不需要提供能量;③没有膜蛋白的协助。协助扩散faciliatied diffusion),其运输特点是: ①比自由扩散转运速率高; ②存在最大转运速率; 在一定限度内运输速率同物质浓度成正比。如超过一定限度,浓度再增加,运输也不再增加。因膜上载体蛋白的结合位点已达饱和; ③有特异性,即与特定溶质结合。条件:对应所运输物质的蛋白质,顺浓度差。


A period of nuclear division. Contains prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase


Photosynthesis 光合作用

The process that uses the sun’s energy to make simple sugars is called photosynthesis.

Electron transport chain 电子传递链

The highly energized, or excited, electrons which are transferred from the energy in the sunlight are passed from chlorophyll to an electron transport chain, a series of proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane.


Cellular respiration 细胞呼吸

The process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP is called cellular respiration. There are 3 stages of cellular respiration: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. The first stage, glycolysis, is anaerobic --- no oxygen is required. The last 2 stages are aerobic and require oxygen to be conpleted.









1、产生乳酸的无氧呼吸方程式:C6H12O6=(酶) 2 C3H6O3(乳酸)+少量能量


2、产生酒精的无氧呼吸方程式:2 C6H12O6=(酶)2 C2H5OH(酒精)+2CO2 +少量能量



Glycolysis 糖酵解

Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two molecules of pyruvic acid, a three-carbon acid.