Percent of total score—50
Directions: You have 75 minutes to answer all three of the following questions. It is recommended that you spend approximately one-third of your time (25 minutes) on each question. It is suggested that you take up to 5 minutes of this time to plan and outline each answer. While a formal essay is not required, it is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. Illustrate your answers with substantive geographic examples where appropriate. Be sure that you number each of your answers, including individual parts, in this booklet as the questions are numbered below.
1. Walls and other barriers built by countries to establish their borders are some of the oldest and most controversial elements in the cultural landscape.
a. Identify three examples of walls or other barriers built by countries in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
b. Explain the purpose of one of the examples you identified in part a.
c. For each of the categories listed below, discuss a consequence faced by countries as a result of walls or other barriers established along their borders.
i. social or political
2. The map above shows areas of shifting cultivation, a form of subsistence agriculture.
A. Define subsistence agriculture.
B. Describe the practice of shifting cultivation.
C. Explain one reason why shifting cultivation was sustainable in the past.
D. Explain two reasons why shifting cultivation is expected to diminish during the twenty-first century.
3. European countries have experienced an increase in Muslim population in recent decades. The map above shows the distribution and proportion of Muslims by country.
a. Identify Countries X, Y, and Z on the map above.
b. Explain two reasons for the increase in Muslim immigration to one of these countries since 1950.
c. For the country you selected in part b, discuss the impacts of the Muslim population increase on the country’s
i. urban spatial organization
ii. population structure
iii. social relations