SECTION I, Part B
Directions: Answer Question 1 and Question 2. Answer either Question 3 or Question 4.
Write your responses in the Section I, Part B: Short-Answer Response booklet. You must write your response to each question on the lined page designated for that response. Each response is expected to fit within the space provided.
In your responses, be sure to address all parts of the questions you answer. Use complete sentences; an outline or bulleted list alone is not acceptable. You may plan your answers in this exam booklet, but no credit will be given for notes written in this booklet.
Use the passage below to answer all parts of the question that follows.
“It was the weakness of Russia’s democratic culture which enabled Bolshevism to take root.... The Russian people were trapped by the tyranny of their own history....For while the people could destroy the old system, they could not build a new one of their own....By 1921, if not earlier, the revolution had come full circle, and a new autocracy had been imposed on Russia which in many ways resembled the old.”
Orlando Figes, historian, A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891-1924, published in 1997
a) Describe one piece of evidence that would support the author’s characterization of Russia’s political cultureprior to the Bolshevik Revolution.
b)Describe one piece of evidence that would support the author’s interpretation of Russia’s “new autocracy” inthe 1920s and 1930s.
c)Describe one piece of evidence that would undermine the author’s argument in the passage that the “newautocracy” in Russia resembled the old.
Use the image below to answer all parts of the question that follows.
Louis-Simon Boizot, Liberty Armed with the Scepter of Reason Striking down Ignorance and Fanaticism, France, 1793
Liberty armed with the sceptre of reason striking down Ignorance and Fanaticism, 1793 (engraving) (b/w photo), Boizot, Simon Louis (1743-1809) (after) / Musee de la Ville de Paris, Musee Carnavalet, Paris, France / Bridgeman Images
a) Describe one way in which the image expresses ideas popularized during the Enlightenment.
b) Describe one way in which the image reflects the policies of the French Revolutionary government’s radical phase.
c) Describe one way in which the ideas in the image continued to influence European political thought after 1815.
Question 3 or 4
Directions: Answer either Question 3 or Question 4.
Answer (a), (b), and (c).
a) Describe one cause of the Protestant Reformation in England during the reign of Henry VIII (1509–1547).
b) Describe one political effect of the Protestant Reformation in England in the period 1500–1600.
c) Explain one difference between political effects of the Protestant Reformation in England and political effects of the Protestant Reformation in France in the period 1500–1600.
Answer (a), (b), and (c).
a) Describe one cause of Great Britain’s early industrialization in the period 1700–1800.
b) Describe one effect of Great Britain’s industrialization on the European balance of power in the period 1800–1900.
c) Explain one political reaction to industrialization within Great Britain in the period 1800–1900.