Directions: Answer all four questions, which are weighted equally; the suggested time is about 22 minutes for answering each question. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in this book. Where calculations are required, clearly show how you arrived at your answer. Where explanation or discussion is required, support your answers with relevant information and/or specific examples.
1. Read the article below and answer the questions that follow.
(a) Describe how TWO human activities, other than those that result in anthropogenic climate change, have resulted in a decrease in the amount of freshwater flowing into the Everglades ecosystem.
(b) In addition to water quantity problems, the Everglades is faced with a variety of water quality issues. For example, phosphorus concentrations in the Everglades have increased since the 1960s.
(i) Describe how one specific human activity contributes to increased phosphorus levels in the Everglades.
(ii) Explain one way in which an increase in phosphorus levels can adversely affect the Everglades ecosystem.
(iii) Describe one step that could be taken to reduce phosphorus inputs from the activity you identified in part (i).
(c) Climate change could have a variety of impacts on water quantity, water quality, and habitat. For EACH of these three factors, identify and describe one specific example of an impact on the Everglades likely to result from climate change.
(d) The article states that Governor Moss believes that the “preservation and enhancement of the Everglades, key goals of the restoration program, are absolutely essential for the continued environmental and economic health of the state.”
(i) Describe one way that restoring water quantity and water quality in the Everglades is expected to improve the structure and function of the ecosystem.
(ii) Describe one way that restoring the Everglades is expected to provide economic benefits to Florida.
2. Approximately 30 million mobile devices were sold in 1998 in the United States. The number sold increased to 180 million devices in 2007.
(a) Calculate the percent increase of mobile device sales from 1998 to 2007.
(b) Each mobile device sold in 2007 contained an average of 0.03 gram of gold. Calculate the number of grams of gold that were used in the production of the mobile devices sold in 2007.
(c) Assume that the average mass of each mobile device was 0.1 kilogram. The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that about 10 percent of the mobile devices sold in 2007 were recycled. Calculate the mass (in kilograms) of the mobile devices sold in 2007 that were not recycled.
(d) Discarded mobile devices become part of the electronic waste stream (e-waste). Mercury is often present in e-waste. Identify one negative human health effect, other than death, associated with exposure to mercury.
(e) Improper disposal of e-waste has harmed human health and caused environmental damage in developing countries.
(i) State TWO reasons why large quantities of e-waste from the United States are shipped to developing countries rather than being recycled in the United States.
(ii) Retailers or manufacturers could take specific steps to dramatically reduce the amount of e-waste. Describe a realistic change in current practices that would accomplish this.