Directions: Answer all four questions, which are weighted equally; the suggested time is about 22 minutes for answering each question. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in this book. Where calculations are required, clearly show how you arrived at your answer. Where explanation or discussion is required, support your answers with relevant information and/or specific examples.
1. Read the article below and answer the questions that follow.
(a) State whether you agree or disagree with each of the following remarks made by Dr. Kull. For each remark, provide one justification for your position.
(i) “Nuclear power plants produce no dangerous solid waste.”
(ii) “Using nuclear power avoids the release of greenhouse gases.”
(b) If the plan for a nuclear power plant in Fremont is approved, it will take several years for the plant to be built. Describe TWO environmental problems that could result from the construction of the plant (i.e., prior to operation).
(c) Suppose that the nuclear power plant is constructed on the Fremont River site.
(i) Identify the most likely pollution threat that the plant will pose to the Fremont River as a result of the plant’s normal daily operation.
(ii) Discuss one potential ecological consequence of the pollution threat that you identified in part (i).
(iii) Identify a system often used in nuclear power plants to reduce the pollution you identified in part (i).
(d) Describe TWO specific steps that Fremont residents and/or businesses could take to reduce the use of electricity.
(e) Identify a specific nuclear power plant at which a major accident has occurred. Explain one environmental consequence (other than effects on human health) of a nuclear power plant accident.
2. Like many communities, Fremont has a combined sewer system that collects both sewage and storm water.When storm water runs into storm drains that connect to the city’s sanitary sewer system, the storm water and sewage flow together to the Fremont Wastewater Treatment Plant (FWTP). During a major storm event,however, the combined volume of storm water and sewage may exceed the plant’s capacity, and the overflow bypasses the FWTP. The untreated overflow is discharged into Fremont Creek along with the treated waste. Recently parts of Fremont received 5 cm of rain in 60 minutes. The storm caused widespread flooding in the northeast section of town. Especially hard hit was the Shoppes at Fremont shopping center. Use the data from the table below to answer the questions that follow. Show all calculations.
(a) Identify TWO specific pollutants in storm-water runoff that degrade the quality of surface water.
(b) Calculate the volume of water （in m³）that runs off the Shoppes at Fremont parking lot after a 5 cm rainfall event. Assume that all the water that falls on the parking lot runs off.
(c) Calculate the volume of storm-water runoff （in m³）generated in all of Fremont by the 5 cm rainfall event.Assume that only the impervious surfaces generate runoff.
(d) Assume that all the runoff that you calculated in part (c) is captured by the storm sewers in one day.Calculate the volume of untreated water（in m³）that bypasses the plant as a result of the storm. (Note that the plant still receives 5000m³ of domestic sewage per day.)
(e) Describe TWO ways that the volume of storm-water runoff can be reduced.
(f) Describe one environmental problem (other than pollution from runoff and from untreated sewage) that results from having extensive paved areas.