Directions: Answer all four questions, which are weighted equally; the suggested time is about 22 minutes for answering each question. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in this book. Where calculations are required, clearly show how you arrived at your answer. Where explanation or discussion is required, support your answers with relevant information and/or specific examples.
1. (a) Identify TWO human activities that alter the natural flow of sediments into Gulf Coast ecosystems. Explain how each of the activities alters the flow of sediments.
(b) Dr. James says that it is important to restore sediments. Describe TWO ways that the loss of natural sediment harms Gulf Coast wetland ecosystems.
(c) Dr. James also indicates that it is necessary to limit fertilizer runoff into the Mississippi River.
i. Describe TWO environmental impacts on the marine ecosystem that are caused by fertilizer when it flows into the Gulf of Mexico.
ii. What are TWO economic consequences that result from the flow of fertilizer into the Gulf of Mexico?
iii. Describe ONE strategy, other than reducing the use of fertilizer, that can be employed to reduce the flow of nutrients into the Mississippi River.
2. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have been introduced to consumers as an alternative way to reduce the environmental effects caused by use of internal-combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A comparison of both vehicle types can help determine whether the use of BEVs would be beneficial in the future. Where calculations are required, show your work.
(a) Identify THREE strategies that the federal government could implement to encourage the use of BEVs.
(b) Assume that the fuel efficiency of the ICE vehicle is 25 miles per gallon (mpg) and that gasoline costs $3.75 per gallon (gal). Calculate the cost of gasoline per mile.
(c) The charger supplies energy to the BEV battery at an average rate of 4.0 kilowatts (kW) and fully charges the BEV battery in 7.0 hours. The car will run for 100 miles on a full charge. The cost of electricity is $0.11 per kilowatt-hour (kWh).
i. Calculate the cost of the electricity to fully charge the battery. Assume that the battery is not charged to begin with.
ii. Calculate the cost of electricity per mile to drive the BEV.
When it is driven 100 miles, the ICE vehicle contributes 72.8 pounds (lb) ofCO2 from the burning of the gasoline. The drilling, refining, and transportation costs of getting the gasoline to the gas station add an additional 17.7 lb of CO2 per 100 miles. The BEV does not emit anyCO2 itself, but the extraction, transportation, and combustion of the coal that produced the electricity at the power plant add 63.6 lb ofCO2 for the same 100 miles.
(d) Calculate the difference in the amount ofCO2 that would enter the atmosphere if both cars were driven 100 miles.
(e) Describe TWO economic impacts (excluding costs related to climate change resulting from CO2 emissions or the cost of gasoline at the pump) that result from an increased number of BEVs on the road.